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CONCLUSIONS In summary, the Navy is in a transition period in ASW, leaving behind the era of acknowledged advantage employing a relatively narrow set of techniques. Some promise of reasonable tactical performance against non-traditional signals has been demonstrated, and some new techniques appear effective. Hypotheses about ocean acoustic performance that influenced Navy ASW operations are now being tested. New scientific hypotheses are being developed, and considerable progress in basic knowledge will be required before the Navy can confidently defend against quieter foreign submarines. In addition, the range of non-acoustic concepts is broadening and offers many research opportunities. The science issues involved in ASW can also affect anti-surface warfare, mine warfare, surveillance, environmental protection, and other Navy-relevant areas. This provides a strong rationale for an expanding and broad-based Ocean Sciences program at the Office of Naval Research. The substantial progress that the United States has achieved is testimony to the quality of the past decades of Navy-supported oceanographic research. 5