References

Changnon, S. A., ed., 2000. El Niño 1997–1998: The Climate Event of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dorman, C., 1999. Technology Infusion Panel - Summary Report, Memorandum to Jack Kelly, 15 March, 1999, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Maryland .

Emanuel, K., and E. Kalnay, 1996. Observations In Aid Of Numerical Weather Prediction For North America Report Of The Prospectus Development Team #7, U.S. Weather Research Program Office, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado. {Available at http://uswrp.mmm.ucar.edu/uswrp/PDT/PDT7.html}

ECMWF (European Center for Medium Range Forecasting), 1999. The Scientific and Technical Foundation of the ECMWF Strategy, 1999 –2008. ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 36 p.

Fleming, J. R., ed., 1996. Historical Essays on Meteorology, 1919–1995. Boston: American Meteorological Society.

Kalnay, E., S. J. Lord, and R. McPherson, 1998. Maturity of Operational Numerical Weather Prediction: Medium Range . Bull. Amer. Meteor Soc.79:2753-2769.

Keener, R., 1997. Impacts of weather and potential use and value of improved forecasts for one electric power utility. In: Societal Aspects of Weather: Report of the Sixth Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF, p. 869 . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.78:867-876 .



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FROM RESEARCH TO OPERATIONS IN WEATHER SATELLITES AND NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION: CROSSING THE VALLEY OF DEATH References Changnon, S. A., ed., 2000. El Niño 1997–1998: The Climate Event of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press. Dorman, C., 1999. Technology Infusion Panel - Summary Report, Memorandum to Jack Kelly, 15 March, 1999, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Maryland . Emanuel, K., and E. Kalnay, 1996. Observations In Aid Of Numerical Weather Prediction For North America Report Of The Prospectus Development Team #7, U.S. Weather Research Program Office, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado. {Available at http://uswrp.mmm.ucar.edu/uswrp/PDT/PDT7.html} ECMWF (European Center for Medium Range Forecasting), 1999. The Scientific and Technical Foundation of the ECMWF Strategy, 1999 –2008. ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 36 p. Fleming, J. R., ed., 1996. Historical Essays on Meteorology, 1919–1995. Boston: American Meteorological Society. Kalnay, E., S. J. Lord, and R. McPherson, 1998. Maturity of Operational Numerical Weather Prediction: Medium Range . Bull. Amer. Meteor Soc.79:2753-2769. Keener, R., 1997. Impacts of weather and potential use and value of improved forecasts for one electric power utility. In: Societal Aspects of Weather: Report of the Sixth Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF, p. 869 . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.78:867-876 .

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FROM RESEARCH TO OPERATIONS IN WEATHER SATELLITES AND NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION: CROSSING THE VALLEY OF DEATH Lord, S., 1999. The Environmental Modeling Center, Present Status and Future Plans, a presentation to the BASC summer study, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, Maryland. NRC (National Research Council), 1998a. The Atmospheric Sciences Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1998b. Capacity of U.S. Climate Modeling to Support Climate Change Assessment Activities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1998c. Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1999a. Adequacy of Climate Observing Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1999b. Assessment of NASA's Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1999c. A Vision for the National Weather Service: Road Map for the Future . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 1999d. Enhancing Access to NEXRAD Data, A Critical National Resource Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 2000a. Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC, 2000b. Assessment of the Current Status of the U.S. Weather Research Program . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NWS (National Weather Service), 1994. Thunderstorms and Lightning, the Underrated Killers! A Preparedness Guide. U.S. Department Of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service. Washington, D.C. OFCM (Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology), 1998. The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research for Fiscal Year 1999.FCM-P1-1998. Washington, D.C. (OFCM). Pielke, Jr., R. A., and J. Kimpel, 1997. Societal Aspects of Weather, Report of the Sixth Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.78:867-876 . Pielke, Jr., R. A., and R. Byerly, Jr., 1998. Beyond Basic and Applied. Physics Today, February 1998, pp. 42-46 . Pielke, Jr., R. A., 1999. Floyd, the fire drill. Web site editorial in WeatherZine, Edition 8, October, at: {http://www.esig.ucar.edu/socasp/zine/18/editorial.html}

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FROM RESEARCH TO OPERATIONS IN WEATHER SATELLITES AND NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION: CROSSING THE VALLEY OF DEATH Reed, D. A., P. Woodward, T. Dunning, L. Johnsson, M. Simmons, G. Karniadakis, R. Hirsh, and C. Leith, Jr.. 1999. Report of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Code Assessment Panel, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 12 p. USGCRP, 1999. Our Changing Planet, the FY2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program . A Supplement to the President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget. U.S. Global Change Research Program Office, Washington, D.C., 100 p . Withee, G. 1999. NPOESS Transition Issues, a presentation to the BASC Summer Study, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, Silver Spring, Maryland.