APPENDIX I

Definitions of Terms Used in This Report

The committee uses certain terms throughout this report. Their definitions are assembled here to assist the reader.

Long-Term Institutional Management—A comprehensive approach to planning and decision-making for management of contaminated sites, facilities, and materials.

Contaminant Reduction—Activities that decrease the volume or toxicity of contaminants at a particular location. These include destruction, decontamination, treatment and processing, natural and radioactive decay, and removal.

Contaminant Isolation—Use of natural or engineered barriers and stabilization techniques to prevent or limit the migration of contaminants and to prevent human intrusion.

Contaminant Remediation—Contaminant reduction and contaminant isolation.

Stewardship—Activities that will be required to manage potentially harmful residual contamination left on site after cessation of remediation efforts, including:

  • maintaining contaminant isolation and measures to monitor the migration and attenuation or evolution of residual contaminants;

  • institutional controls (see definition below);

  • conducting oversight and, if necessary, enforcement;

  • gathering, storing, and retrieving information about residual contaminants and conditions on site, as well as about changing off-site conditions that may affect or be affected by residual contaminants;

  • disseminating information about the site and related use restrictions;

  • periodically reevaluating how well the total protective system is working;

  • evaluating of new technological options to reduce or eliminate residual contaminants or to monitor and prevent migration of isolated contaminants; and

  • supporting research and development aimed at improving basic understanding of both the physical and sociopolitical character of site environments and the fate, transport, and effects of residual site contaminants.

Institutional Controls—Restrictions on land access or use through such devices as easements, deed notification, zoning, permits, fences, signs, government ownership, and leases; also, legal measures to ensure continued access to privatized sites for the purpose of monitoring and, if necessary, further remediation.



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OCR for page 163
Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites APPENDIX I Definitions of Terms Used in This Report The committee uses certain terms throughout this report. Their definitions are assembled here to assist the reader. Long-Term Institutional Management—A comprehensive approach to planning and decision-making for management of contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. Contaminant Reduction—Activities that decrease the volume or toxicity of contaminants at a particular location. These include destruction, decontamination, treatment and processing, natural and radioactive decay, and removal. Contaminant Isolation—Use of natural or engineered barriers and stabilization techniques to prevent or limit the migration of contaminants and to prevent human intrusion. Contaminant Remediation—Contaminant reduction and contaminant isolation. Stewardship—Activities that will be required to manage potentially harmful residual contamination left on site after cessation of remediation efforts, including: maintaining contaminant isolation and measures to monitor the migration and attenuation or evolution of residual contaminants; institutional controls (see definition below); conducting oversight and, if necessary, enforcement; gathering, storing, and retrieving information about residual contaminants and conditions on site, as well as about changing off-site conditions that may affect or be affected by residual contaminants; disseminating information about the site and related use restrictions; periodically reevaluating how well the total protective system is working; evaluating of new technological options to reduce or eliminate residual contaminants or to monitor and prevent migration of isolated contaminants; and supporting research and development aimed at improving basic understanding of both the physical and sociopolitical character of site environments and the fate, transport, and effects of residual site contaminants. Institutional Controls—Restrictions on land access or use through such devices as easements, deed notification, zoning, permits, fences, signs, government ownership, and leases; also, legal measures to ensure continued access to privatized sites for the purpose of monitoring and, if necessary, further remediation.

OCR for page 163
Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites Contextual Factors—Factors that can affect the nature and extent of the measures taken under long-term institu-tional management; seven factors in particular often constrain the range of decisions and actions realistically available: risk; scientific and technical capability; institutional capability; cost; laws and regulations; values of interested and affected parties; and other sites.