study the use of psychophysiological countermeasure implementation, and determine the effects of the spaceflight environment on the kinetics and efficacy of psychopharmacological medications. With the exception of the circadian and neurovestibular systems, countermeasure evaluation and development received little attention in the past. However, the 2000 NRA, in soliciting research on the development of predictive tools for the assessment and support of psychological well-being, has begun to redress this imbalance.


National Research Council (NRC), Space Studies Board. 1998. A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Todd, P., M.J. Pecaut, and M. Fleshner. 1999. Combined effects of space flight factors and radiation on humans. Mutat. Res. 430:211-219.

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