Programmatic Balance,

 

62

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

62

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

62

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

63

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

63

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

64

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

66

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

66

   

 Summary,

 

67

   

 References,

 

67

10

 

SETTING PRIORITIES IN RESEARCH

 

68

   

 Loss of Weight-bearing Bone and Muscle,

 

68

   

 Vestibular Function, the Vestibulo-ocular Reflex, and Sensorimotor Integration,

 

69

   

 Orthostatic Intolerance Upon Return to Earth Gravity,

 

69

   

 Radiation Hazards,

 

70

   

 Physiological Effects of Stress,

 

70

   

 Psychological and Social Issues,

 

70

   

 References,

 

71

11

 

PROGRAMMATIC AND POLICY ISSUES

 

72

   

 International Space Station: Utilization and Facilities,

 

72

   

 Countermeasure Testing and Validation,

 

73

   

 Controlled Trials in Space,

 

74

   

 Use of Historical Data,

 

75

   

 Empirical Observation,

 

75

   

 Operational and Research Use of Biomedical Data,

 

76

   

 The Role of Medical Operations in Human Research and Countermeasure Validation,

 

76

   

 Effects of Spaceflight on Drug Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics,

 

77

   

 Availability of Stored Clinical Samples,

 

77

   

 Data Archive,

 

77

   

 Science Policy Issues,

 

78

   

 Support of Operational Research,

 

78

   

 International Cooperation,

 

78

   

 Integration of Research Activities,

 

79

   

 References,

 

80

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

A A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century, Executive Summary

 

83

   

B Letter of Request from NASA

 

100

   

C Glossary

 

103

   

D Acronyms

 

107

   

E Biographies of Committee Members

 

110



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