The latter finding means that the evidence reviewed by the committee is of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association between the vaccine and a health outcome in humans.

Multiple Vaccinations

Certain multiple vaccination regimens can lead to suboptimal antibody responses, but there is little evidence, largely because of a lack of active monitoring, of other adverse clinical or laboratory consequences beyond the transient local and systemic effects seen frequently with any vaccination.

No long-term identifiable clinical sequelae attributable to intense long-term immunization occurred in the Fort Detrick cohort. There was some evidence of a chronic inflammatory response, but these changes cannot necessarily be attributed to the vaccinations, since the workers studied were occupationally exposed to a number of virulent microbes. This series of longitudinal clinical studies also had several shortcomings. However, the studies are valuable because careful monitoring did not disclose any evidence of serious unexplained illness in a cohort that received a series of intense vaccination protocols over many years.

The U.K. Gulf War studies provide some limited evidence of an association between multiple vaccinations and long-term multisymptom outcomes, particularly for vaccinations given during deployment (Unwin et al., 1999; Hotopf et al., 2000). There are some limitations and confounding factors in these studies, and further research is needed.

The committee concludes that there is inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association does or does not exist between multiple vaccinations and long-term adverse health effects.

This finding means that the evidence reviewed by the committee is of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of an association between multiple vaccinations and health outcomes in humans.

REFERENCES

Ahmed SA, Hissong BD, Verthelyi D, Donner K, Becker K, Karpuzoglu-Sahin E. 1999. Gender and risk of autoimmune diseases: Possible role of estrogenic compounds. Environ Health Perspect 107(Suppl 5):681–686.

Aho K, Wager O. 1961. Production of anti-antibodies in rabbits. Ann Med Exper Fenn 39:79–87.

Aho K, Konttinen A, Wager O. 1962. Transient appearance of the rheumatoid factor in connection with prophylactic vaccinations. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 56(4):478–479.



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