kBell et al., 1998a; Graveling et al., 1999. Sensitization is the progressive increase in the degree of response (usually locomotor or stereotyped movements in animals) over repeated presentations of a stimulus. Kindling, a subtype of sensitization, is the production of permanent susceptibility to seizures through repeated electrical or chemical stimulation of the brain at levels formerly incapable of triggering seizures.
lSimon et al., 1993.
mRussell, 1998; Bennett, 1998. HPA refers to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.
nBates et al., 1995; De Lorenzo et al., 1998; Demitrack and Crofford, 1998; Komaroff and Buchwald, 1998.
oPercentage with doctor-diagnosed “environmental illness” or “multiple chemical sensitivity” in population-based survey (Kreutzer et al., 1999).
pWolfe et al., 1995.
qBuchwald et al., 1996; Similar prevalence found across different countries (United States, United Kingdom, Australia) using somewhat different criteria (Wessely et al., 1998).
rThere is some evidence of effectiveness with cognitive behavioral therapy, but controlled clinical trials have not been performed (Sparks et al., 1994).
tSharpe et al., 1996; Goshorn, 1998; Komaroff and Buchwald 1998; Wearden et al., 1998.
uCited in Hodgson and Kipen, 1999.
vBuchwald and Garrity, 1994.
wWolfe et al., 1997.
xBombardier and Buchwald, 1996; Buchwald et al. 1996.