G

Notes on Figures, Tables, and Other References

OVERALL FUNDING

In Figure 2.2 in Chapter 2, overall funding data for 1981 to 1985 are taken from the 1991 Decadal Report, adjusted via the standard inflation factors to FY 1997. Data for 1986 to 1999 are taken from R. Konkel's (NRC contractor) spreadsheets. For the period from 1986 to 1989, the agreement between the 1991 Decadal Report and Konkel is in the 2 to 4 percent range.

In Figure 2.3, NSF funding, data for 1981 to 1985 are again taken from the 1991 Decadal Report; data for 1986 to 1999 are taken from R. Konkel's spreadsheets. For the period from 1986 to 1989, the agreement between the two sets of numbers is good, better than 1 percent.

In Figure 2.4, NSF grant funding data for 1981 to 1987 are taken from the 1991 Decadal Report. For the years 1988 to 1997, data are from Konkel: the number of grants is estimated as the number of new awards multiplied by the mean new award duration averaged over the three previous years. The rationale for this approach is that the grants are of roughly three-year duration and have to be smoothed.

In Figure 2.5 , the NASA astronomy budget data for 1981 to 1985 are from the 1991 Decadal Report; data for 1986 to 1999 are from Konkel. Much of the earlier material appeared in the 1998 Space Studies Board report Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis.

STUDENTS AND DEGREES

Astronomy doctorate production and graduate enrollment figures are taken from the AIP Enrollments and Degrees Report (Patrick J. Mulvey and Starr Nicholson, Enrollments and Degrees Report, AIP Publication No. R-151.35, American Institute of Physics, College Park, Maryland, 2000) and from the AAS report on Graduate Education (Stephen Strom et al., “The American Astronomical Society's Examination of Graduate Education in Astronomy, ” Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 29 (1997), page 1426). Figures for 1988 to 1998 are from the Enrollments and Degrees Report. Note that one of the problems inherent in an effort like this is that when there is an overlap in coverage, both sources agree qualitatively but not quantitatively—there is some interpretation of what constitutes a doctorate in astronomy or astrophysics, especially when the doctorate is granted by a joint physics and astronomy department. Enrollment numbers for 1985 to 1987 are scaled from the AAS report to the AIP mean by the AIP/AAS ratio for the years with overlap. The actual figures and estimates are shown in Table G.1.



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FEDERAL FUNDING OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH G Notes on Figures, Tables, and Other References OVERALL FUNDING In Figure 2.2 in Chapter 2, overall funding data for 1981 to 1985 are taken from the 1991 Decadal Report, adjusted via the standard inflation factors to FY 1997. Data for 1986 to 1999 are taken from R. Konkel's (NRC contractor) spreadsheets. For the period from 1986 to 1989, the agreement between the 1991 Decadal Report and Konkel is in the 2 to 4 percent range. In Figure 2.3, NSF funding, data for 1981 to 1985 are again taken from the 1991 Decadal Report; data for 1986 to 1999 are taken from R. Konkel's spreadsheets. For the period from 1986 to 1989, the agreement between the two sets of numbers is good, better than 1 percent. In Figure 2.4, NSF grant funding data for 1981 to 1987 are taken from the 1991 Decadal Report. For the years 1988 to 1997, data are from Konkel: the number of grants is estimated as the number of new awards multiplied by the mean new award duration averaged over the three previous years. The rationale for this approach is that the grants are of roughly three-year duration and have to be smoothed. In Figure 2.5 , the NASA astronomy budget data for 1981 to 1985 are from the 1991 Decadal Report; data for 1986 to 1999 are from Konkel. Much of the earlier material appeared in the 1998 Space Studies Board report Supporting Research and Data Analysis in NASA's Science Programs: Engines for Innovation and Synthesis. STUDENTS AND DEGREES Astronomy doctorate production and graduate enrollment figures are taken from the AIP Enrollments and Degrees Report (Patrick J. Mulvey and Starr Nicholson, Enrollments and Degrees Report, AIP Publication No. R-151.35, American Institute of Physics, College Park, Maryland, 2000) and from the AAS report on Graduate Education (Stephen Strom et al., “The American Astronomical Society's Examination of Graduate Education in Astronomy, ” Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 29 (1997), page 1426). Figures for 1988 to 1998 are from the Enrollments and Degrees Report. Note that one of the problems inherent in an effort like this is that when there is an overlap in coverage, both sources agree qualitatively but not quantitatively—there is some interpretation of what constitutes a doctorate in astronomy or astrophysics, especially when the doctorate is granted by a joint physics and astronomy department. Enrollment numbers for 1985 to 1987 are scaled from the AAS report to the AIP mean by the AIP/AAS ratio for the years with overlap. The actual figures and estimates are shown in Table G.1.

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FEDERAL FUNDING OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH TABLE G.1 NRC/AIP Data on Astronomy Ph.D. Production in the United States, 1973 to 1998   Ph.D.s Granted Enrolled Graduate Students Year S+E Total Engineering Physical Science Astronomy Physics Life Science Math Astronomy Physics (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 1973 — — — 131 — — — — — 1974 — — — 133 — — — — — 1975 — — — 131 — — — — — 1976 — — — 150 — — — — — 1977 — — — 120 — — — — — 1978 — — — 138 — — — — — 1979 — — — 115 — — — — — 1980 — — — 121 — — — — — 1981 18,914 2,528 2,627 109 906 5,442 960 — — 1982 18,961 2,646 2,694 102 912 5,530 940 — — 1983 19,274 2,781 2,814 115 928 5,395 987 — — 1984 19,470 2,913 2,851 98 982 5,599 993 — — 1985 19,664 3,166 2,934 100 980 5,632 998 660 — 1986 20,207 3,376 3,120 109 1,078 5,574 1,128 680 — 1987 20,694 3,712 3,238 100 1,137 5,615 1,190 700 — 1988 21,814 4,187 3,350 130 1,172 6,008 1,264 731 13,143 1989 22,706 4,543 3,261 113 1,161 6,176 1,471 780 13,361 1990 23,824 4,894 3,524 128 1,265 6,458 1,597 842 13,708 1991 25,064 5,214 3,626 125 1,286 6,764 1,839 914 14,065 1992 25,787 5,438 3,781 134 1,403 6,974 1,927 935 14,534 1993 26,640 5,698 3,699 145 1,399 7,257 2,026 939 14,430 1994 27,501 5,822 3,977 144 1,548 7,577 2,021 901 14,201 1995 27,865 6,008 3,841 173 1,479 7,742 2,187 905 13,285 1996 28,554 6,305 3,838 192 1,485 8,084 2,043 874 12,596 1997 28,241 6,052 3,711 197 1,379 8,077 2,001 837 11,786 1998 — — — — — — — 757 11,302 NOTE: Columns 2 to 8, Ph.D.s granted, from NRC Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel and from AAS graduate education study ( The American Astronomical Society's Examination of Graduate Education in Astronomy, available online at <http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v29n5/edrpt.html>). Numbers for astronomy include astronomy and astrophysics dissertations produced in physics departments. Columns 9 and 10, enrolled graduate students from AAS graduate education study or from AIP enrollments and degrees report (AIP Publication R151.35). For the data used in Figure 4.3 Figure 4.5 to Figure 4.6, Chapter 4, the number of papers published per year showed a considerable increase over the period studied, with two anomalies caused by changes in the number of issues per month: The Astrophysical Journal changed between 1989 and 1992, while Monthly Notices changed between 1995 and 1997. To remove this effect, the committee presents all results as fractions of the total for that year. For Table 5.7, Chapter 5, figures for the NASA R&A budget are from Guenther Riegler at NASA headquarters and were compiled by Board on Physics and Astronomy program officer Joel Parriott. Overall DOE astrophysics funding data are from Jim Stone in the program office at DOE HEP. They do not include nuclear physics spending on programs that are astrophysics related.