Appendix C

Survey of Graduate Students and Recent Ph.D.s: Instruments and Protocols



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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Appendix C Survey of Graduate Students and Recent Ph.D.s: Instruments and Protocols

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION This page in the original is blank.

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Focus Group Protocol

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Focus Group Questions Tell me about your current position? What is it and how long have you been in it? [This is an icebreaker: participants will be grad students or postdocs] What are your career aspirations? What do you find attractive about the career you aspire to? Unattractive? Right now, what do you think are your chances of realizing your aspirations? What are the obstacles to realizing these aspirations? Think back to when you first started college and when you first started graduate school. What were your career aspirations at each of these times? If you have changed your aspirations, what caused you to change? Have you ever considered a career other than in a university, such as in industry (biotechnology, pharmaceutical) computers, science writing, law school, or teaching? What is attractive about these careers? Probes [Less time in postdoc] [Better pay and benefits] [Increase in authority] [No need to write grants] [Job stability] [Can have a life] What is unattractive about these careers? Probes [Out of the academic research loop] [Need more time as a postdoc] [Not interested in applied research or teaching] [Am not interested in administration] [Wouldn't want someone telling me what to do]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What are the obstacles to pursuing these alternatives? Probes [Lack of jobs] [Loss of identity] [Easy to get taken-in] [Risks associated with working for start-up companies] [Would need substantial training (for computers, law, teacher education] Have you ever considered a career as a secondary school science or mathematics teacher? If yes, why? If not, why not? What might be attractive about such a position? Probes [Enjoy teaching] [Enjoy working with young people] [Would enjoy teaching in a magnet school for science & technology] [Would be productive way to use my science/math knowledge] [Would enjoy contributing to the improvement of science and math education in the United States] [Rediscover general interest in science] [Community research projects] [Development of pedagogical skills] [Potential summer opportunities: teaching, research, vacation] [Nice alternative to research track and would get me out of postdoc limbo] What makes this position unattractive to you? Probes [Am only interested in basic research] [Material is boring] [Loss of status] [Peer disapproval] [Colleagues are not as stimulating] [Don't want to work with young people] [Don't like teaching] [Would have to manage a classroom and discipline students] [Would need additional teacher training] [Low salary compared to university-level academics] What are the obstacles to pursuing a position as a secondary school teacher? Probes [Don't know where the jobs are] [Need state certification] [Would need extra training to learn to teach] [Would only work in magnet schools or schools for gifted children] [May get kicked-out of graduate program if I leave the research track] [Can't afford it because of student debt—and other alternatives careers would pay more] [Facing potential rejections by colleagues in the secondary school (either faculty or administrators]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Would you consider taking such a position for a five-year commitment? Probes [5-years is too long, I'd never be able to get back into basic research] [5-years is enough time] [Would only do this as a permanent career change] [Would only consider it if I were associated with a research program] What incentives or special arrangements would be required to attract you to a secondary school teaching position? Follow-up probes: Certification: What is your perception of the certification process for secondary school teaching in your state? For teacher certification, most states require teacher education courses and a passing score on basic skills and/or subject matter examinations. Would you consider secondary school teaching if you could satisfy the teacher education requirement by: (see handout) Compensation: What career options would you be willing to consider based on the following salaries for professional positions and your perception of the chances of your obtaining one of these positions? (see state-specific handouts) What other aspects of compensation, besides salary, might sway your decision? Probes [Summer fellowships for research] [Student loan repayment] [Reimbursement for relocation costs] [Benefits] Work environment: What characteristics of your work environment would be especially important to you in a secondary school teaching position? Probes [Type of school (e.g., science/math magnet)] [Age of students] [Ability to job share] [Ability to have job security] [Availability of lab equipment or science kits] [Special summer programs (for teaching, professional development, research)] [Ability to contribute to curriculum development] [Ability to do research] [Other] Would you consider taking a position with a school district or state department of education in science or mathematics curriculum development? If yes, why? If not, why not?

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What might be attractive about such a position? Probes [Administrative responsibility] [Actions and decisions have big impact] [Can set policy] What might be unattractive about such a position? Probes [Completely removed from research] [Would waste time spent in graduate school] [No interest in administration or policy work] [Would rather work with scientists] What are the obstacles to pursuing such a position? Probes [New and difficult network to enter] [Requires new skills and abilities] [Others would not accept me because I'm primarily a scientist, not an educator [Would be frustrating to rise through the ranks]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Are you still engaged in research? If yes, describe your research activities. If no, why are you not doing any research? Probes [Summer programs or sabbaticals] [Linkages with research universities] [Maintains own lab] [Networking with colleagues] [Attends professional meetings] Have you ever had any regrets about entering secondary school teaching? If yes, what were they? If no, do you think that you are a special case? Probes [Felt loss of status] [Don't enjoy working in a bureaucracy] [Lost connection to research community] [Teaching isn't what I expected] [Salary and benefits aren't sufficient] What advice would you give to a science/math Ph.D. who is considering secondary school teaching? What do you think about the future of secondary school science teaching? What future do you envision for science and mathematics doctorates entering into secondary school teaching?

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Protocol – Interviews with Administrators

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Interview Guide: High School Principals Hello, this is [name of interviewer] with the National Research Council. I am working on a NRC project investigating the potential for attracting recent science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching or curriculum development positions. I hope you received the letter we sent you last week introducing you to this project. As one step in this study, we are conducting a national survey of graduate students and recent Ph.D.s to assess their level of interest in such positions, the obstacles they face in taking them, and the incentives they would need to make the transition to these positions. As another step, we would like to obtain the views of high school principals, district superintendents and state education commissioners on the prospects for placing Ph.D.s in these positions. Do you see recent Ph.D.s as a source of quality science and mathematics teachers in your high school or other high schools in your school district? Why or why not? What do you see as the advantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Knowledge of subject at the forefront of the field] [Commitment to subject] [Ability to convey scientific methods to students] [They would make fine teachers] [Would provide an alternative career for them—would anyone say this?] What do you see as the disadvantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Lack of teaching ability] [Lack of commitment to secondary education] [They're trained for and mainly interested in research] [Unable to thrive in K-12 environment] [Unable to relate to other faculty]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What are the obstacles to attracting and retaining science and mathematics Ph.D.s as secondary school teachers? Probes [Lack of teacher certification] [Need for further training in education] [Lack of interest or commitment on the part of Ph.D.s in teaching] [Would not be made welcome by other teachers] [Salary/compensation levels are not sufficient to attract them] [School districts not willing to hire more expensive Ph.D.s] Given that funding were available, what incentives or special arrangements have been or could be implemented that would attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Alternative certification process: what would it look like?] [Enhanced compensation: salary, merit pay, summer fellowship, student loan repayment, relocation reimbursement, benefits, other] [Placement in magnet schools or schools for gifted students] [Ability to contribute to curriculum development] [Ability to conduct research] [Ability to job share] [Availability of lab quality lab equipment or science kits] [Special summer programs] [Other] Are any of these already available due to policies implemented by the state, the school district you are in, or your school? Which of these could additionally be implemented at the high school level? What arrangements have been or could be implemented by graduate schools that would facilitate the transition of science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Availability of teacher preparation courses to Ph.D. candidates] [Partnerships between universities and school systems that provided exposure of grad students to the K-12 environment] [Availability of fellowships that gave students an opportunity to work in middle or high schools while in graduate school] Are any of these currently available? Which might be implemented by colleges or universities in your state? How willing are you to allow a reduced teaching load for Ph.D.s during a training period?? Are their funds available for teacher training for Ph.D.s?

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Interview Guide: School Superintendents Hello, this is [name of interviewer] with the National Research Council. I am working on a NRC project investigating the potential for attracting recent science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching or curriculum development positions. I hope you received the letter we sent you last week introducing you to this project. As one step in this study, we are conducting a national survey of graduate students and recent Ph.D.s to assess their level of interest in such positions, the obstacles they face in taking them, and the incentives they would need to make the transition to these positions. As another step, we would like to obtain the views of high school principals, district superintendents and state education commissioners on the prospects for placing Ph.D.s in these positions. Do you see recent Ph.D.s as a source of quality science and mathematics teachers for the high schools or middle schools in your school district? Why or why not? What do you see as the advantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Knowledge of subject at the forefront of the field] [Commitment to subject] [Ability to convey scientific methods to students] [They would make fine teachers] [Would provide an alternative career for them—would anyone say this?] What do you see as the disadvantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Lack of teaching ability] [Lack of commitment to secondary education] [They're trained for and mainly interested in research] [Unable to thrive in K-12 environment] [Unable to relate to other faculty]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What are the obstacles to attracting and retaining science and mathematics Ph.D.s as secondary school teachers? Probes [Lack of teacher certification] [Need for further training in education] [Lack of interest or commitment on the part of Ph.D.s in teaching] [Would not be made welcome by other teachers] [Salary/compensation levels are not sufficient to attract them] [School districts not willing to hire more expensive Ph.D.s] Given that funding were available, what incentives or special arrangements have been or could be implemented that would attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Alternative certification process: what would it look like?] [Enhanced compensation: salary, merit pay, summer fellowship, student loan repayment, relocation reimbursement, benefits, other] [Placement in magnet schools or schools for gifted students] [Ability to contribute to curriculum development] [Ability to conduct research] [Ability to job share] [Availability of lab quality lab equipment or science kits] [Special summer programs] [Other] Are any of these currently available through school district policies? Which of these could be implemented at the school district level? What arrangements have been or could be implemented by graduate schools that would facilitate the transition of science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Availability of teacher preparation courses to Ph.D. candidates] [Partnerships between universities and school systems that provided exposure of grad students to the K-12 environment] [Availability of fellowships that gave students an opportunity to work in middle or high schools while in graduate school] Are any of these currently available? Which might be implemented by colleges or universities in your state? How willing do you think schools would be to allow a reduced teaching load for Ph.D.s during a training period? Are their funds available at the school district level for teacher training for Ph.D.s? Are there other positions in which you would like to see Ph.D.s contribute?

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Interview Guide: Chief State School Officers or State Policymakers Hello, this is [name of interviewer] with the National Research Council. I am working on a NRC project investigating the potential for attracting recent science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching or curriculum development positions. I hope you received the letter we sent you last week introducing you to this project. As one step in this study, we are conducting a national survey of graduate students and recent Ph.D.s to assess their level of interest in such positions, the obstacles they face in taking them, and the incentives they would need to make the transition to these positions. As another step, we would like to obtain the views of high school principals, district superintendents and state education commissioners on the prospects for placing Ph.D.s in these positions. Do you see recent Ph.D.s as a source of quality science and mathematics teachers in high schools in your state? Why or why not? What do you see as the advantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Knowledge of subject at the forefront of the field] [Commitment to subject] [Ability to convey scientific methods to students] [They would make fine teachers] [Would provide an alternative career for them—would anyone say this?] What do you see as the disadvantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Lack of teaching ability] [Lack of commitment to secondary education] [They're trained for and mainly interested in research] [Unable to thrive in K-12 environment] [Unable to relate to other faculty]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What are the obstacles to attracting and retaining science and mathematics Ph.D.s as secondary school teachers? Probes [Lack of teacher certification] [Need for further training in education] [Lack of interest or commitment on the part of Ph.D.s in teaching] [Would not be made welcome by other teachers] [Salary/compensation levels are not sufficient to attract them] [School districts not willing to hire more expensive Ph.D.s] Given that funding were available, what incentives or special arrangements have been or could be implemented that would attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Alternative certification process: What would it look like? Is something different needed?] [Enhanced compensation: salary, merit pay, summer fellowship, student loan repayment, relocation reimbursement, benefits, other] [Placement in magnet schools or schools for gifted students] [Ability to contribute to curriculum development] [Ability to conduct research] [Ability to job share] [Availability of lab quality lab equipment or science kits] [Special summer programs] [Other] Are any of these currently available through state-level policies? Which of these could additionally be implemented at the state level? What arrangements have been or could be implemented by graduate schools that would facilitate the transition of science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Availability of teacher preparation courses to Ph.D. candidates] [Partnerships between universities and school systems that provided exposure of grad students to the K-12 environment] [Availability of fellowships that gave students an opportunity to work in middle or high schools while in graduate school] Are any of these currently available? Which might be implemented by colleges or universities in your state? Are their funds available at the state level for teacher training for Ph.D.s? Are there other positions in which you would like to see Ph.D.s contribute?

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Interview Guide: Graduate Deans Hello, this is [name of interviewer] with the National Research Council. I am working on a NRC project investigating the potential for attracting recent science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching or curriculum development positions. I hope you received the letter we sent you last week introducing you to this project. As one step in this study, we are conducting a national survey of graduate students and recent Ph.D.s to assess their level of interest in such positions, the obstacles they face in taking them, and the incentives they would need to make the transition to these positions. As another step, we would like to obtain the views of graduate deans regarding the prospects for training Ph.D.s for these positions. Do you see recent Ph.D.s as a source of quality science and mathematics teachers in high schools [in your state]? Why or why not? What do you see as the advantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Knowledge of subject at the forefront of the field] [Commitment to subject] [Ability to convey scientific methods to students] [They would make fine teachers] [Would provide an alternative career for them—would anyone say this?] What do you see as the disadvantages of Ph.D.s as secondary school science and mathematics teachers? Probes [Lack of teaching ability] [Lack of commitment to secondary education] [They're trained for and mainly interested in research] [Waste of research talent] [Unable to thrive in K-12 environment] [Unable to relate to other secondary school faculty]

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION What are the obstacles to attracting and retaining science and mathematics Ph.D.s as secondary school teachers? Probes [Lack of teacher certification] [Need for further training in education] [Lack of interest or commitment on the part of Ph.D.s in teaching] [Would not be made welcome by other teachers] [Salary/compensation levels are not sufficient to attract them] [School districts not willing to hire more expensive Ph.D.s] What arrangements have been or could be implemented by graduate schools that would facilitate the transition of science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Availability of teacher preparation courses to Ph.D. candidates] [Partnerships between universities and school systems that provided exposure of grad students to the K-12 environment] [Availability of fellowships that gave students an opportunity to work in middle or high schools while in graduate school] Are any of these currently available? Which would you be willing to implement? What incentives or special arrangements have been or could be implemented by school systems to attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching? Probes [Alternative certification process: what would it look like?] [Enhanced compensation: salary, merit pay, summer fellowship, student loan repayment, relocation reimbursement, benefits, other] [Placement in magnet schools or schools for gifted students] [Ability to contribute to curriculum development] [Ability to conduct research] [Ability to job share] [Availability of lab quality lab equipment or science kits] [Special summer programs] [Other] Are any of these currently available? Which of these could additionally be implemented by states, school districts, or schools?

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