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TABLE 6-1 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels, Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels, Uncertainty Factors, and Critical Adverse Effects for Various Nutrients, by Life Stage Group

Nutrient

ULa

NOAELb

LOAELc

UFd

Critical Adverse Effect

Calcium (mg/d)

 

Hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency (milk-alkali syndrome)

Infants (0–12 mo)

NDe

f

 

Toddlers (1–3 y)

2,500g

 

Children (4–8 y)

2,500g

 

Children (9–13 y)

2,500g

 

Adolescents (14–18 y)

2,500g

 

Adults (19–70 y)

2,500

h

5,000

2

 

Pregnant women

2,500

 

Lactating women

2,500

 

Older adults (> 70 y)

2,500

 

Fluoride (mg/d)

 

Moderate enamel fluorosisj

Infants (0–6 mo)

0.7

0.1i

1

 

Infants (6–12 mo)

0.9

0.1i

1

 

Children (1–3 y)

1.3

0.1i

1

 

Children (4–8 y)

2.2

0.1i

1

 

Children (9–13 y)

10

10

1

Skeletal fluorosis

Adolescents (14–18 y)

10

10

1

 

Adults (19–70 y)

10

10

1

 

Pregnant women

10

10

1

 

Lactating women

10

10

1

 

Older adults (> 70 y)

10

10

1

 

Magnesiumk (mg/d)

 

Diarrhea

Infants (0–12 mo)

ND

 

Toddlers (1–3 y)

65l

 

Children (4–8 y)

110l

 

Children (9–13 y)

350

360

~1

 

Adolescents (14–18 y)

350

360

~1

 

Adults (19–70 y)

350

360

~1

 

Pregnant women

350

 

Lactating women

350

 

Older adults (> 70 y)

350

360

~1

 


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