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Comparing Usual Intakes with the EAR and the UL

Table 7-2 is an example of an evaluation of the intakes of children 4 through 8 years of age. Under certain assumptions an effective estimate of the prevalence of inadequate intake is the percentage of a group with usual nutrient intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have not yet

TABLE 7-2 Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Children 4 through 8 Years of Age—What Proportion Has Inadequate Intake? What Proportion Is Potentially at Risk of Excessive Intake?

Nutrient

Unit

EARa

Percentage Less than the EAR

ULb

Percentage Greater than the UL

Calcium

mg/d

NAc

NA

2,500

<1

Phosphorus

mg/d

405

<1

3,000

<1

Magnesium

mg/d

110

5

110d

UKe

Thiamin

mg/d

0.5

<1

NA

NA

Riboflavin

mg/d

0.5

<1

NA

NA

Niacin

mg/d

6

<1

15

UK

Vitamin B6

mg/d

0.5

<1

40

<1

Folatef

μg/d

160

35

400

UK

Vitamin B12

μg/d

1.0

<1

NA

NA

Vitamin C

mg/d

22

<1

650

<1

Vitamin Eg,h

mg/d

6

60i

300j

UK

Seleniumh

μg/d

23

<1

150

<1

a EAR=Estimated Average Requirement.

b UL=Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

c NA = not applicable.

d UL for magnesium applies to supplements only, not diet plus supplement.

e UK = Unknown because the UL applies only to intakes from supplements (magnesium) or from supplemental and fortification sources (niacin, folate, and vitamin E).

f The EAR and RDA for folate are expressed as μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE). However, insufficient information was available to convert intake data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals to DFEs, thus for this example, folate intake is expressed in lag. Intake data were collected prior to folate fortification of grain products and thus underestimate current folate intake.

g The EAR is expressed in mg of α-tocopherol.

h Dietary intake data for selenium and vitamin E is from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994.

i Accurate measures of vitamin E intake are difficult to obtain due to underreporting of fat intake; it is likely that the percent less than the EAR is an overestimate (IOM, 2000).

j Applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

SOURCE: 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.



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