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mated prevalence of X percent is significantly different from zero or if prevalence estimates for two groups of individuals differ significantly from each other or from zero.

Additional research is needed for applications that assess the nutrient intakes of different subgroups of the population. In particular, further research is needed to apply the methods included in this report to estimate differences in the prevalence of inadequacy between subgroups after controlling for other factors that affect nutrient intake.

Ways to assess the performance of methods to estimate prevalence of inadequacy should be investigated. A detailed investigation of the effect of violating assumptions for the EAR cut-point method discussed in this report is a high research priority. This would best be done using well-designed, well-planned, and well-implemented simulation studies. Results of such studies would permit identification of recommendations as to the best approach to be used in assessments for each nutrient and would provide an estimate of the expected bias in prevalence estimates when the conditions for application of the cut-point method are not ideal.

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