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When using the proposed method it is important to note that the pooled estimates of the within-person standard deviation of intakes in Table B-2, Table B-3, Table B-4 to Table B-5 are based on data on nutrients from food only, not food plus supplements. This suggests the need for caution in using these estimates in assessing individual intakes relative to the UL. For some nutrients, ULs are defined on the basis of total intake (food plus supplements), and the estimates of the within-person standard deviation of intakes based on food alone may not be the same as those based on food plus supplements. For other nutrients, ULs refer only to nutrient intake from food fortificants, supplements, and pharmacological products. In these cases, the proposed methods are even less reliable, as currently there are no estimates of the within-person standard deviation of intakes from supplement use alone.



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