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## Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (2000) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

### Citation Manager

. "Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations." Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.

 Page 204

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment

(1)

For a given estimate of the joint distribution ƒY,R, obtaining equation 1 is trivial. The problem is not the actual probability calculation but rather the estimation of the joint distribution of intakes and requirements in the population.

To reduce the data burden for estimating ƒY,R, approaches such as the probability approach proposed by the National Research Council (NRC, 1986) and the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method proposed by Beaton (1994), make an implicit assumption that intakes and requirements are independent random variables —that what an individual consumes of a nutrient is not correlated with that individual's requirement for the nutrient. If the assumption of independence holds, then the joint distribution of intakes and requirements can be factorized into the product of the two marginal densities as follows:

ƒY,R(r, y) = ƒR(r)ƒY(y) (2)

where ƒY(y) and ƒR(r) are the marginal densities of usual intakes of the nutrient, and of requirements respectively, in the population of interest.

Note that under the formulation in equation 2, the problem of assessing prevalence of nutrient inadequacy becomes tractable. Indeed, methods for reliable estimation of ƒY(y) have been proposed (e.g., Guenther et al., 1997; Nusser et al., 1996) and data are abundant. Estimating ƒR(r) is still problematic because requirement data are scarce for most nutrients, but the mean (or perhaps the median) and the variance of ƒR(r) can often be computed with some degree of reliability (Beaton, 1999; Beaton and Chery, 1988; Dewey et al., 1996; FAO/WHO, 1988; FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). Approaches for combining ƒR(r) and ƒY(y) for prevalence assessments that require different amounts of information (and assumptions) about the unknown requirement density ƒR(r) and the joint distribution FY,R (y, r) are discussed next.

 Page 204
 Front Matter (R1-R14) Contents (R15-R18) Summary (1-18) I. Historical Perspective and Background (19-20) 1 Introduction and Background (21-28) 2 Current Uses of Dietary Reference Standards (29-42) II. Application of DRIs for Individual Diet Assessment (43-44) 3 Using Dietary Reference Intakes for Nutrient Assessment of Individuals (45-70) III. Application of DRIs for Group Diet Assessment (71-72) 4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (73-105) 5 Using the Adequate Intake for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (106-112) 6 Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (113-126) 7 Specific Applications: Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups Using the Dietary Reference Intakes (127-144) IV. Fine-Tuning Dietary Assessment Using the DRIs (145-146) 8 Minimizing Potential Errors in Assessing Group and Individual Intakes (147-161) 9 Research Recommended to Improve the Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (162-167) 10 References (168-178) Appendix A: Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes (179-184) Appendix B: Nutrient Assessment of Individuals: Statistical Foundations (185-202) Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations (203-210) Appendix D: Assessing the Performance of the EAR Cut-Point Method for Estimating Prevalence (211-231) Appendix E: Units of Observation: Assessing Nutrient Adequacy Using Household and Population Data (232-238) Appendix F: Rationale for Setting Adequate Intakes (239-253) Appendix G: Glossary and Abbreviations (254-261) Appendix H: Biographical Sketches of Subcommittee Members (262-266) Index (267-281) Summary Table: Estimated Average Requirements (282-283) Summary Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (284-286) Summary Table: Recommended Intakes for Individuals (287-289)