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## Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (2000) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

### Citation Manager

. "Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations." Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.

 Page 210

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment

Pr{yr} ≈ Fr(a)

where FY(a) = PR{ya} is the cdf of intakes evaluated at a, for a = EAR In fact, it is easy to show that when E(r) = E(y):

Pr(yr)= FY(EAR)

The prevalence of inadequate intakes can be assessed as long as one has an estimate of the usual nutrient intake distribution (which is almost always available) and of the median requirement in the population, or EAR, which can be obtained reliably from relatively small experiments.

The quantile FY(EAR) is an approximately unbiased estimator of Pr{yr} if

• ƒY,R(y,r) = fY(y) fR(r), that is intakes and requirements are independent random variables.

• Pr{r ≤ –α} = Pr{r ≥ α} for any α > 0, that is, the distribution of requirements is symmetrical around its mean; and

• > , where and denote the variance of the distribution of requirements and of intakes, respectively.

When any of the conditions above are not satisfied, FY(EAR) ≠ Pr{yr}, in general. Whether FY (EAR) is biased upward or downward depends on factors such as the relative sizes of the mean intake and the EAR.

 Page 210
 Front Matter (R1-R14) Contents (R15-R18) Summary (1-18) I. Historical Perspective and Background (19-20) 1 Introduction and Background (21-28) 2 Current Uses of Dietary Reference Standards (29-42) II. Application of DRIs for Individual Diet Assessment (43-44) 3 Using Dietary Reference Intakes for Nutrient Assessment of Individuals (45-70) III. Application of DRIs for Group Diet Assessment (71-72) 4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (73-105) 5 Using the Adequate Intake for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (106-112) 6 Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (113-126) 7 Specific Applications: Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups Using the Dietary Reference Intakes (127-144) IV. Fine-Tuning Dietary Assessment Using the DRIs (145-146) 8 Minimizing Potential Errors in Assessing Group and Individual Intakes (147-161) 9 Research Recommended to Improve the Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (162-167) 10 References (168-178) Appendix A: Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes (179-184) Appendix B: Nutrient Assessment of Individuals: Statistical Foundations (185-202) Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations (203-210) Appendix D: Assessing the Performance of the EAR Cut-Point Method for Estimating Prevalence (211-231) Appendix E: Units of Observation: Assessing Nutrient Adequacy Using Household and Population Data (232-238) Appendix F: Rationale for Setting Adequate Intakes (239-253) Appendix G: Glossary and Abbreviations (254-261) Appendix H: Biographical Sketches of Subcommittee Members (262-266) Index (267-281) Summary Table: Estimated Average Requirements (282-283) Summary Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (284-286) Summary Table: Recommended Intakes for Individuals (287-289)