inadequacy in a group in which the correlation varied from 0 through 1. The intakes and requirements for the group were generated from a bivariate normal distribution in which the mean and standard deviation of usual intake were fixed at 90 and 30 units, respectively. Several cases were considered for the distribution of requirements. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was fixed at three values: 55, 70, and 90 units, and the SDr was also set at three values: 7.5, 15, and 30 units. Thus, the effect of increasing the correlation between intake and requirement for nine different scenarios for the joint distribution of intakes and requirements was investigated. It is important to point out that neither the probability approach nor its shortcut, the EAR cut-point method require that the distribution of usual intakes in the group be normal. The performance of either method does not depend in any way on the shape of the distribution of usual intakes in the group. Intakes from a normal distribution were generated only for convenience.
In each case, the true prevalence was obtained as the proportion of individuals whose usual intakes were below their requirements for the nutrient in a population of 50,000. From this population, smaller groups of 2,000 were sampled 200 times. The estimated prevalence was obtained as the proportion of individuals whose usual intakes were below the corresponding EAR (i.e., by application of the EAR cut-point method) in each of the 200 groups. The estimates of prevalence presented here are the means, over the 200 replicates, of the estimates of prevalence in each of the groups.
In Figure D-1, Figure D-2, Figure D-3, Figure D-4, Figure D-5, Figure D-6, Figure D-7, Figure D-8 through Figure D-9, the solid lines and dots represent the true prevalence at each value of the correlation between intakes and requirements. The dashed lines and squares represent the average estimates of prevalence (over the 200 replicates) at each correlation value between intakes and requirements.