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independence of intakes and requirements, 81, 83-84, 85, 86, 88

individual-to-individual variation of intakes and, 8, 93, 94, 95, 96, 134

joint distribution in, 83-84, 85, 86, 204, 208, 209, 213

mean intakes and, 12, 103-104, 134, 138-139

observed mean intakes and, 12, 96, 97

prevalence of excessive intakes, 14-15, 42, 130, 131, 142-143, 154-155

prevalence of inadequate intakes, 8, 12, 73-74, 76-81, 86, 87-89, 94, 99, 101, 102, 109-110, 129-132, 135-139, 203-210, 213, 214-221, 225-226

probability approach, 8-9, 74, 76-81, 83-84, 88-89, 91, 205-208, 209, 212, 213, 229, 231

RDAs and, 4, 11, 24, 102-104, 131

requirement distribution and, 8, 11, 81, 83, 86, 89-91, 208, 209

requirement–intake correlation, 8, 9, 74, 81, 87-89, 203-204, 212-224

requirement variance relative to intake variance, 11, 12, 83, 86, 91-93, 212, 224-229

research recommendations, 16-17, 165-167

skewed intake distribution and, 95-96

survey data and, 10, 14-15, 96, 98-102, 128-129, 132-143

ULs used in, 4, 13, 120-124, 130-131

units of observation, 104

usual intakes and, 7, 8, 9, 76-77, 81, 83-84, 85, 96, 97

within-person variation in intakes and, 9, 10, 94-95, 96

Group mean intakes

AIs and, 6, 12, 107, 108, 110, 111, 131

defined, 258

EARs and, 12, 103-104, 131

and group-level assessments, 12, 14-15, 103-104, 131, 134, 138-139

RDAs and, 12, 103, 128

H

Health claims, 41

Hospital patients, menu planning for, 41

Household inventories, 153

Household-level assessments

adequacy of nutrient intakes, 233-234

application, 234-235

defined, 257

dietary data used in, 104, 156-157, 235-236

food energy, 232-233

household requirement and, 232-233, 234

nutrients, 233-235

population of households, 233

I

Inadequacy of nutrient intake, 187, 205, 257

Indicators of nutrient adequacy, risk reduction-based, 2, 23, 27

Individual-level assessments

AI used in, 4, 6-7, 46, 51, 58-62, 67, 68, 69, 194, 198-200

applications of DRIs in, 4, 46, 66-69

in assisted living setting, 66-67, 68

biological parameters considered, 47, 66, 67, 69

choosing reference standard for, 50-51

confidence of adequacy, 6, 56-57, 60, 64-65, 67, 68, 189-190, 197, 199, 200

confidence of safety, 199, 201

day-to-day variability in intake and, 5, 6, 45, 48-49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55-56, 60, 186, 187, 188, 191-196

dietary intake data for, 49-50, 54

distribution of daily intakes and, 61-62, 190, 198-199, 201

EAR used in, 4, 5-6, 46, 50-51, 52-58, 59, 67, 68, 69, 185, 186-197

implementation of approach, 193-195

lifestyle information, 69

limitations of methods, 45-46, 195-197

measurement of dietary intake and, 47, 48-50, 51, 54, 56, 58, 67, 187

observed intakes and, 5, 6, 49, 50, 51, 66, 185, 188

observed mean intakes and, 5-6, 37, 45, 48-50, 51, 52, 55, 58, 60-61, 62, 63, 67, 185, 186, 188

precision of, 46-47

in pregnancy planning context, 67-69

probability of inadequacy, 5



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