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proposed new method , 46-66

qualitative interpretation of intakes, 62, 65, 68

RDAs and, 4, 6, 46, 51, 54, 56, 57, 68, 69

requirement differences and, 5, 6, 45, 46, 50-51, 57-58, 186, 188, 190

research recommendations, 165

statistical foundations, 185-202

supplement use and, 7, 62, 63, 65-66, 201-202

types of information required for, 47, 66, 67, 69, 186

ULs used in, 4, 7, 46, 51, 62-66, 67, 68, 69, 199, 201-202

uncertainty in, 45, 51, 188-189, 201

usual intakes and, 5, 7, 45, 46, 47, 48-50, 51, 52, 58, 59-60, 64, 185-186, 187

z-test, 6, 189, 198-200, 201

Infants, AI derivation for, 25, 107, 109, 110, 239-240

Institutional dietary assessment and planning

for hospital patients, 41

RDAs and RNIs used in, 36-37, 39, 40, 41

requirement variance greater than intake variance, 91-93, 228-229

Interindividual variability, defined, 257

Intraindividual variability.

See also Within-person variation in intakes

defined, 257

Iowa State University method, 98-102, 160

Iron, 22, 42, 46, 50-51, 57, 67, 80, 81, 89, 91, 149, 158, 191, 192, 197, 212, 230

J

Joint distribution of intake and requirement

collecting data on, 76

cut-point method, 83-84, 85, 86, 204, 208, 209, 213

defined, 257

estimation of, 203-204, 209

probability approach, 77

L

Life-stage groups.

See also Adolescents;

Adults;

Children;

Infants;

individual nutrients

AIs of nutrients by, 107-109, 240-253

categories, 183

and derivation of DRIs, 149, 181

EARs of nutrients by, 268-269

ULs of nutrients by, 115-119, 270-271

Lifestyle information, 69

Likelihood

of adequacy, 233

defined, 258

LOAEL, 114, 115-119, 121, 122, 258

Log normal distribution, 91, 229-231

Long-term care facilities, 91-93

M

Magnesium

distribution of usual intake, 121, 191, 192

EARs, 268

group-level assessments, 10-11, 82-83, 108, 129

individual-level assessments, 53-57, 191, 192

prevalence of inadequate intakes, 10-11, 142-143

prevalence of excess intakes, 14-15, 131, 142-143

RDAs, 274

risk of excessive intakes, 14-15, 63

supplement intake distribution, 124

ULs, 115, 130, 270

Malnutrition, 26

Mean intake.

See also Group mean intakes;

Observed mean intakes

regression-adjusted differences in, 135

Mean requirement, defined, 258

Measuring dietary intakes

bias in, 17, 164

bioavailability considerations, 157-158

chronic illness and, 156

eating practices and, 152, 156

encouraging accurate reporting, 153-154

energy intake and, 152, 153, 160

food composition data and, 17, 152, 154, 157, 160, 164-165



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