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for group-level assessments, 97-98

for individual-level assessments, 47, 48-50, 51, 54, 56, 58, 67, 187

instruments for, 16, 17, 49, 150, 151-153, 164

life circumstance considerations, 156

memory probes and cues, 154

physiological considerations, 16

portion size considerations, 152, 154, 160

research recommendations, 17, 163-165

seasonality/periodicity considerations, 155-156

supplement use, 17, 150, 154-155, 164

systematic variations and, 155-156, 160

unit of measurement and, 158, 165

unit of observation and, 156-157

variance in, 160-161

Measurement error

defined, 257

in individual nutritional assessment, 57-58

influence on assessment results, 147

minimizing, 147, 150-158

model, 97-98

within-person variation in intake, 49-50, 58

Military food and nutrition planning and policy, 34-37, 39

Multiple regression analyses, 133, 134-140, 166

N

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 58, 65, 99, 155, 164, 166, 195-196, 199

National Research Council method, 93-94, 97-98, 100

National School Lunch Program, 35

Neural tube defects, 26, 27, 69

Niacin

bioavailability, 158

EARs, 50, 149, 150, 197, 268

energy intake and, 149, 150

group-level assessments, 10-11, 82-83, 108, 129, 130, 131

individual-level assessments, 48, 191, 192

prevalence of excess intakes, 14-15, 142-143

prevalence of inadequate intakes, 14-15, 142-143

RDAs, 275

risk of excessive intakes, 14-15, 142-143

supplement intake distribution, 121, 124

ULs, 117, 122, 124, 271

units, 158

NOAEL, 114, 115-119, 121, 122, 258

Normal distribution, defined, 258

Normative storage requirement, 22

Nutrient assessment of groups.

See Group-level assessments

Nutrient assessment of individuals.

See Individual-level assessments

Nutrient content claims, 41

Nutrient density approach, 208, 234-235

Nutrient equivalents, 158

Nutrient intakes.

See Observed intakes;

Observed mean intakes;

Usual intakes of nutrients

Nutrient–nutrient interactions, 63

Nutrient requirement.

See also Distribution of requirements;

Standard deviation of requirements

average/mean, 74, 75, 77, 207

correlated with usual intakes, 8, 81, 87-89, 212-224

criterion of nutritional adequacy, 22

CV, 83, 187

defined, 22, 47, 258, 259

household-level, 232-233, 234

independence of usual intakes, 81, 83-84, 85, 86, 88

and intake variance, 5, 11, 47, 83, 86, 91-93, 161, 205, 212, 224-229

nutrient intake compared, 5, 47, 52

per capita, 237

uncertainty for individuals, 5, 6, 45, 46, 50-51, 57-58, 165-166, 186, 188, 189, 190

variance of, 11, 83, 86, 91-93, 161, 205, 212, 224-229, 234

Nutrition education, 32-33, 35-36, 37, 38, 39, 42

Nutritional Standards for Operational Rations, 37

Nutritional status, 258



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