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This report is organized to take the user step-by-step through methodology for using the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to assess the adequacy of nutrient intakes. An overview of the concept of using dietary reference standards along with the identification of their past uses (specifically the former Recommended Dietary Allowances [RDAs] and Recommended Nutrient Intakes [RNIs]) is presented in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3 describes how DRIs can be used for assessing the apparent nutrient adequacy of individuals, and includes a discussion of obtaining and interpreting information on individual intakes and the effect of the large within-person variation. Examples of specific applications are also provided.

Chapter 4 provides the statistical basis for the use of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) in assessing nutrient adequacy of groups. The chapter begins with a basic discussion of the concept of assessing the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes and then develops the statistical approaches for estimating this prevalence. Assumptions required for the use of the statistical models are discussed, as is the need for adjusting intake distributions.

In Chapter 5, the focus is on group-level assessment of nutrient adequacy using the Adequate Intake (AI). Chapter 6 provides guidance on the extent to which the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) can be used to estimate the prevalence of potential risk for adverse effects in groups.

Specific guidance with examples on appropriate applications of the DRIs for group assessment purposes is provided in Chapter 7— the methodological approaches described in Chapter 4, Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 are applied to some of the specific uses of dietary reference standards reported in Chapter 2. Three specific applications are presented and discussed.

A brief description of limitations in the measurement of intakes and requirements, and the importance of accurate sampling techniques are highlighted in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 provides recommendations for research needed to improve and refine nutrient assessments.

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