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Units of observation.

See also Group-level assessments;

Household-level assessments;

Individual-level assessments;

Population-level assessments

defined, 261

and measuring dietary intakes, 156-157

Univariate distribution

defined, 261

of usual intakes, 76-77, 209

Unmixing algorithm, 97

U.S. Department of Agriculture

dietary guidelines, 32-33, 38

food plans, 35, 39

food use data adjustments, 235

Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, 157

U.S. Department of Defense, 39

Usual intakes of nutrients, 1.

See also Adjusting intake distributions;

Distribution of usual intakes

and AI, 46, 59-60, 110, 126

average, 74, 75

confidence levels, 6, 56, 64-65

correlated with requirements, 8, 81, 87-89, 212-224

defined, 93, 185-186, 261

descriptive analyses of, 133-134

and EARs, 14-15, 130-131

estimation challenges, 49

group-level assessments, 76-77, 81, 83-84, 85, 96, 97, 130-131

independent of requirement, 81, 83-84, 85, 86, 88

individual-level assessment, 5, 7, 45, 46, 47, 48-50, 51, 52, 58, 59-60, 64, 185-186, 187

mean of, 74

number of days needed to estimate, 6, 48-49, 187

from observed intakes, 49, 50, 52, 185

from observed mean intakes, 97, 186

obtaining information on, 48-50, 58

random error in, 58, 164

and ULs, 7, 64

variance of, 11, 83, 161

V

Variance in dietary assessment.

See also Within-person variation in intakes collection of intake data and, 94, 160-161

in day-to-day intakes, 5, 53, 60, 94

in distribution of nutrient requirement, 8, 53n.1, 162-163, 188

in distribution of observed intakes, 94

in distribution of usual intakes, 93

EAR-related variability, 50, 159-160

measurement error, 98

representative subsamples of groups, 158

sampling variability, 159

standard deviation of prevalence estimates, 158-161

Vitamin A, 22, 46, 49, 56, 63, 67, 95, 191, 192, 197, 200

Vitamin B6, 10-11, 14, 82-83, 99-102, 108, 117, 122, 126, 129, 130, 131, 142, 191, 192, 269, 271, 275

Vitamin B12, 10-11, 14, 15, 22, 46, 63, 67, 82-83, 108, 129, 130, 131, 142, 143, 149, 191, 192, 200, 269, 275

Vitamin C, 10-11, 14, 46, 48, 56, 63, 67, 82-83, 108, 118, 121, 129, 130, 131, 142, 191, 192, 197, 269, 271, 276

Vitamin D, 10-11, 15, 51, 68, 73, 82-83, 107, 108, 110, 118, 131, 143, 149, 244-245, 270, 274

Vitamin E, 10-11, 14, 46, 56, 63, 67, 82-83, 108, 116, 121, 124, 129, 130, 131, 142, 164, 191, 192, 197, 269, 271, 276

W

Weight history, 67, 69

WIC program, 34-35, 39

Within-person variation in intakes

adjusting intake distributions for, 9, 94-95, 96, 196-197

asymmetrical, 56

of cholesterol, 193-194



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