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differs. A more detailed discussion of the origin and framework of the DRIs is presented in Appendix A. Recommended intakes for the nutrients examined to date are presented at the end of this book.

The introduction of multiple dietary reference intakes—the EAR, RDA, AI, and UL—requires that applications for each be carefully developed and clearly explained. Box S-2 provides a brief introduction to appropriate uses of the DRIs for assessment, but it lacks the detail needed for their application (see Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6 and Chapter 7).

Various professionals applying the former RDAs and RNIs—nutrition researchers, policy makers, nutrition educators, epidemiologists, and many others—may need guidance in using and interpreting

Box S-2 Uses of DRIs for Assessing Intakes of Individuals and Groups

For an Individual

For a Group

EAR: use to examine the probability that usual intake is inadequate.

EAR: use to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes within a group.

RDA: usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy.

RDA: do not use to assess intakes of groups.

AI: usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy.

AI: mean usual intake at or above this level implies a low prevalence of inadequate intakes.a

UL: usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake.

UL: use to estimate the percentage of the population at potential risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake.

EAR = Estimated Average Requirement

RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance

AI = Adequate Intake

UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level

a When the AI for a nutrient is not based on mean intakes of healthy populations, this assessment is made with less confidence.



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