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Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (2000) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

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. "4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups." Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.

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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment

of interest. These univariate distributions can be combined and the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes can be estimated statistically by using the probability approach (NRC, 1986).

The probability approach relates individual intakes to the distribution of requirements. The probability approach applies a continuous risk-probability function to each individual's estimated intake and then averages the individual probabilities across the population or group. The first step in applying the probability approach is to construct a risk curve using the information on the requirement distribution of the group (median and variance). The risk curve specifies the probability that any given intake is inadequate for the individual consuming that intake. Figure 4-3 shows an example of a risk curve. An intake at the level of the average requirement has a probability of inadequacy of approximately 50 percent for all nutrients whose requirements follow a normal distribution.

The risk curve in Figure 4-3 is from a hypothetical nutrient requirement distribution. For simplicity, the requirements are normally distributed and the mean requirement is 100 units. Intake less than 50 units is associated with 100 percent risk of inadequacy whereas

FIGURE 4-3 Risk curve from a normal requirement distribution having a mean of 100 units. Intakes less than 50 units are associated with 100 percent risk of inadequacy while intakes above 150 units have 0 percent risk of inadequacy. Intake equal to the mean requirement of 100 units has a 50 percent risk of inadequacy (the definition of the Estimated Average Requirement [EAR]).

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 Front Matter (R1-R14) Contents (R15-R18) Summary (1-18) I. Historical Perspective and Background (19-20) 1 Introduction and Background (21-28) 2 Current Uses of Dietary Reference Standards (29-42) II. Application of DRIs for Individual Diet Assessment (43-44) 3 Using Dietary Reference Intakes for Nutrient Assessment of Individuals (45-70) III. Application of DRIs for Group Diet Assessment (71-72) 4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (73-105) 5 Using the Adequate Intake for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (106-112) 6 Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Nutrient Assessment of Groups (113-126) 7 Specific Applications: Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups Using the Dietary Reference Intakes (127-144) IV. Fine-Tuning Dietary Assessment Using the DRIs (145-146) 8 Minimizing Potential Errors in Assessing Group and Individual Intakes (147-161) 9 Research Recommended to Improve the Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (162-167) 10 References (168-178) Appendix A: Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes (179-184) Appendix B: Nutrient Assessment of Individuals: Statistical Foundations (185-202) Appendix C: Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations (203-210) Appendix D: Assessing the Performance of the EAR Cut-Point Method for Estimating Prevalence (211-231) Appendix E: Units of Observation: Assessing Nutrient Adequacy Using Household and Population Data (232-238) Appendix F: Rationale for Setting Adequate Intakes (239-253) Appendix G: Glossary and Abbreviations (254-261) Appendix H: Biographical Sketches of Subcommittee Members (262-266) Index (267-281) Summary Table: Estimated Average Requirements (282-283) Summary Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (284-286) Summary Table: Recommended Intakes for Individuals (287-289)