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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment Contents SUMMARY 1 I HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND BACKGROUND 19 1 Introduction and Background 21 Purpose of the Report, 21 What are DRIs?, 22 Organization of the Report, 28 2 Current Uses of Dietary Reference Standards 29 Changes Over Time, 29 Uses of the Former RDAs and RNIs, 31 Looking Ahead: Applying the DRIs, 42 II APPLICATION OF DRIs FOR INDIVIDUAL DIET ASSESSMENT 43 3 Using Dietary Reference Intakes for Nutrient Assessment of Individuals 45 Introduction, 46 Proposed New Method for Individual Assessment, 46 Applications, 66 Summary, 69
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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment III APPLICATION OF DRIs FOR GROUP DIET ASSESSMENT 71 4 Using the Estimated Average Requirement for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 73 Introduction, 73 The Probability Approach, 76 The EAR Cut-Point Method, 81 Adjusting Intake Distributions, 93 Inappropriate Approaches for Group-Level Assessment Using the RDA, 102 Units of Observation Other Than the Individual, 104 Summary, 104 5 Using the Adequate Intake for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 106 Derivations of the AI, 106 Comparison of the AI, RDA, and EAR, 109 Limitations of the AI in Dietary Assessment, 109 Summary, 112 6 Using the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Nutrient Assessment of Groups 113 Theory and Definitions, 113 Evaluating the Risk of Adverse Effects Using the UL, 120 Some Frequently Asked Questions, 125 7 Specific Applications: Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups Using the Dietary Reference Intakes 127 Introduction, 127 Application 1: Describing Dietary Survey Data, 128 Application 2: Assessing the Prevalence of Inadequate or Excessive Intake, 129 Application 3: Evaluating Differences in Intake, 132 Summary, 141 IV FINE-TUNING DIETARY ASSESSMENT USING THE DRIs 145 8 Minimizing Potential Errors in Assessing Group and Individual Intakes 147 Tailoring Requirements for Specific Groups and Individuals, 147 Minimizing Errors in Measuring Dietary Intakes, 150 Issues of Variance in Dietary Assessment, 158 Summary, 161
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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment 9 Research Recommended to Improve the Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes 162 Research to Improve Estimates of Nutrient Requirements, 162 Research to Improve the Quality of Dietary Intake Data, 163 Research to Improve Statistical Methods for Using the DRIs to Assess Intakes of Individuals, 165 Research to Improve Statistical Methods for Using the DRIs to Assess Intakes of Groups, 165 10 References 168 APPENDIXES A Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes, 179 B Nutrient Assessment of Individuals: Statistical Foundations, 185 C Assessing Prevalence of Inadequate Intakes for Groups: Statistical Foundations, 203 D Assessing the Performance of the EAR Cut-Point Method for Estimating Prevalence, 211 E Units of Observation: Assessing Nutrient Adequacy Using Household and Population Data, 232 F Rationale for Setting Adequate Intakes, 239 G Glossary and Abbreviations, 254 H Biographical Sketches of Subcommittee Members, 262 INDEX 267 SUMMARY TABLES: Dietary Reference Intakes Estimated Average Requirements, 282 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 284 Recommended Intakes for Individuals, 287
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DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: Applications in Dietary Assessment This page in the original is blank.