B

Acronyms and Abbreviations

4DDA

four-dimensional data assimilations

AATSR

Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer

ACE 1, 2, and 3

Aerosol Characterization Experiments

ADEOS-2 or ADEOS-3

Advanced Earth Observation Satellite, also, Advanced Earth Observing System

ADM

Angular Directional Model

AERI

Atmospheric Emitted Radiation Interferometer

AERONET

Aerosol Robotic Network

AIRMISR

Airborne Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer

AIRS

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

AirSAR

Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar

ALI

Advanced Land Imager

AM-1 or AM-2

morning platform 1 or 2

AMSU-A

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A

AMSU-B

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B

AOS

Aerosol Observation System

ARM

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer

ATMS

Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder

ATSR

Along Track Scanning Radiometer

AVHRR

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

AVIRIS

Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

BOREAS

Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study

BRDF

bidirectional reflectance distribution function

CAC

Climate Analysis Center

C-band

microwave wavelength used in radar signals

CCD

charge-coupled device



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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN B Acronyms and Abbreviations 4DDA four-dimensional data assimilations AATSR Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer ACE 1, 2, and 3 Aerosol Characterization Experiments ADEOS-2 or ADEOS-3 Advanced Earth Observation Satellite, also, Advanced Earth Observing System ADM Angular Directional Model AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiation Interferometer AERONET Aerosol Robotic Network AIRMISR Airborne Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AirSAR Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar ALI Advanced Land Imager AM-1 or AM-2 morning platform 1 or 2 AMSU-A Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A AMSU-B Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B AOS Aerosol Observation System ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATSR Along Track Scanning Radiometer AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVIRIS Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study BRDF bidirectional reflectance distribution function CAC Climate Analysis Center C-band microwave wavelength used in radar signals CCD charge-coupled device

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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN CCN cloud condensation nuclei CDOM colored dissolved organic matter CEOS Committee on Earth Observation Satellites CERES Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System CES Committee on Earth Studies CHEM satellite to measure atmospheric chemistry CMIS Conical Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales CrIS Cross-Track Infrared Sounder CRWP Climate Requirements Workshop Report CSA Canadian Space Agency CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner DEM Digital Elevation Model DIAL Differential Absorption Laser DMS dimethyl sulfide DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy EC elemental carbon ECS EOSDIS Core System EDR environmental data record ENSO El Niño/Southern Oscillation ENVISAT Environmental Satellite (European Space Agency's first research polar platform) EO-1 Earth Observer 1, first satellite of the New Millennium Program EOS Earth Observing System EOS AM Earth Observing System Morning Satellite EOS PM Earth Observing System Afternoon Satellite EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System EOSP Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter EP Earth Probes ERB Earth Radiation Budget ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Satellite EROS Earth Resources Observation Satellite or System ER-2 NASA-ER2 high-altitude research aircraft ERS Earth Resources Satellite ESA European Space Agency ESE Earth Science Enterprise ESS Earth System Science ESSIPs Earth System Science Information Partnerships ESSP Earth System Science Pathfinder ESTAR Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper EUMETSAT European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FIFE First ISLSCP Field Experiment FMOC Fleet Meteorology and Oceanography Center

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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN FOV field of view FTS Fourier transform spectrometer FWHM full width at half maximum (bandwidth) GAC Global Area Coverage GAIM Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling GCIP GEWEX Continental-scale International Project GCM general circulation model GCOS Global Climate Observing System GCRP Global Change Research Program GCS gas-correlation spectrometer GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit GERB Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment GEWEX PILPS GEWEX Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes GHG greenhouse gas GLI Global Imager GLIS Global Land Information System GODAE Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOFC Global Observation of Forest Cover GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GPP gross primary productivity GPS Global Positioning System GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) GTOS Global Terrestrial Observing System HALOE Halogen Occulation Experiment HAPEX Hydrological-Atmospheric Pilot Experiment HDF hierarchical data format hh-polarization horizontally polarized emitting and receiving radar signals HIRDLS High-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder HIRS High-Resolution Infrared Sounder HIS High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder IAM integrated assessment model IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Program IGBP-DIS IGBP data and information system IGBP/IHDP LUCC IGBP/International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change/Land-Use and Land-Cover Change IGOS International Global Observing Strategy IGPO International GEWEX Project Office IHDP International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change IIP Instrument Incubator Program ILAS Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer IOCCG International Ocean Color Coordinating Group IOM Institute of Medicine IORD Integrated Operational Requirements Document

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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN IORD-1 Integrated Operational Requirements Document (First Version) IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPO Integrated Program Office IR infrared IRS Indian Remote Sensing (series of satellites) ISLSCP International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project JERS Japan's Earth Resources Satellite JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory KVR-1000 the Russian panchromatic band LAI/FPAR or LAI/fPAR leaf area index/fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation Landsat Land Remote Sensing Satellite LBA Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in the Amazon L-band low-frequency LEO low Earth orbit LightSAR Light Synthetic Aperture Radar LITE Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment M-AERI Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiation Interferometer MAS MODIS Airborne Simulator MASTER multiband optical and thermal infrared sensor MCSST Multi-Channel SST (algorithm) MERIS Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer METEOR Russian Operational Weather Satellite METEOSAT European Geostationary Meteorological Satellite METOP Meteorological Operational satellite METOP-3 EUMETSAT Operational Polar Orbiter 3 MIPAS Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding MISR Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer MLS Microwave Limb Sounder MODIS Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MSG METEOSAT Second Generation MSS Multispectral Scanner MSU Microwave Sounding Unit MWIR medium wavelength infrared NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASDA National Space Development Agency-Japan NAVO Naval Oceanographic Office NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Climate Prediction Center NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NEΔL noise-equivalent delta radiance NEMO Naval Earth Map Observer NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service NetCDF network Common Data Format NEP net ecosystem productivity Nimbus-7 NASA Environmental Research Satellite Series, 7

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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN NIR near infrared NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NLSST Non-Linear SST (algorithm) NMP New Millennium Program NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project NRC National Research Council NWP Numerical Weather Prediction OCTS Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (on ADEOS-1) OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OPT Ozone Processing Team ORACLE Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiments Orbimage-2 Orbital Science's Imaging Satellite 2 OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program OTIS Ocean Thermal Optimum Interpolation System PALSAR phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar P-band microwave wavelength used in radar signals PI principal investigator PICASSO-CENA Pathfinder Instruments for Clouds and Aerosols using Spaceborne Observations-Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols PM-1 or PM-2 afternoon platform 1 or 2 PMC polar mesospheric cloud POAM Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement POES Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances PSC polar stratospheric cloud RADARSAT Canada's Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite RAL/UK Rutherford Appleton Laboratory/United Kingdom rms root mean square SAFARI Southern African Fires Atmosphere Research Initiative SAGE Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment SAM Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement SAR synthetic aperture radar SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet SCIAMACHY Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography SeaWiFS Sea Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor S-GLI S-Global Imager SIMBIOS Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies SIR-C Shuttle Imaging Radar-C SIR-C/X SAR Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer SNR signal-to-noise ratio SOLVE SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment SPOT Systeme pour l'Observation de la Terre (France)

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ISSUES IN THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH AND OPERATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEMS FOR CLIMATE RESEARCH: I. SCIENCE AND DESIGN SSBUV Space Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet SSMI Special Sensor Microwave/Imager SSM/T/1 DMSP Microwave Temperature Sounder SSM/T/2 DMSP Microwave Water Vapor Profiler SST sea surface temperature SVAT soil vegetation atmosphere transfer TARFOX Tropospheric Aerosol Radiation Forcing Observation Experiment TDR time domain reflectivity TES Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite TIROS-N fourth-generation NOAA polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite TM Thematic Mapper TOA top of the atmosphere TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer TOPC Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program UV ultraviolet VCL Vegetation Canopy Lidar VIIRS Visible/Infrared Imager and Radiometer Suite VNIR visible and near infrared VOCs volatile organic carbons vv-polarization Vertically polarized emitting and receiving radar signals WCRP World Climate Research Program WMO World Meteorological Organization WOCE World Ocean Circulation Project x-band Microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined by wavelengths of approximately 2.4 to 3.8 cm