have short time scales, completing the planning and design phase in 1 to 2 years, followed by a relatively short mission. NASA technology programs such as the New Millennium Program and the Instrument Incubator Program are not focused on improving the capabilities of NPOESS. If NPOESS planning takes 5 or 6 years, it is not clear how NASA technology will be incorporated into NPOESS. Operational missions require several years of proven spaceflight to increase confidence in the sensor design as well as demonstrate the utility of the data set.


Balch, W.M., P.M. Holligan, S.G. Ackleson, and K.J. Voss. 1991. Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 629-643.

Behrenfeld, M.J., and P.G. Falkowski. 1997. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration . Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 1-20.

Brown, C., and J.A. Yoder. 1994. Coccolithophorid blooms in the global ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 99: 7467-7482.

Campbell, J.W., and W.E. Esaias. 1983. Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll . Appl. Opt. 22: 1084-1093.

Chelton, D.B., and M.G. Schlax. 1991. Estimation of time-averages from irregularly spaced observations: With application to coastal zone color scanner estimates of chlorophyll a concentrations. J. Geophys. Res. 96: 14669-14692.

Denman, K.L., and M. Miyake. 1973. Upper layer modifications at Ocean Station Papa: Observations and simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3: 185-196.

Frouin, R., M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. 1996. Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and implications for remote sensing of ocean color and aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 101: 14361-14371.

Gordon, H.R., and A.Y. Morel. 1983. Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Integrated Program Office (IPO), National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). 1996. Integrated Operational Requirements Document (IORD) I. Joint Agency Requirements Group Administrators. 61 pp. + figures.

International Ocean Color Coordinating Group (IOCCG). 1998. Minimum requirements for an operational ocean-colour sensor for the open ocean. IOCCG Rept. No. 1, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Kahru, M., U. Horstmann, and O. Rud. 1994. Satellite detection of increased cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea: Natural fluctuation or ecosystem change. Ambio 23: 469-472.

Kirk, J.T.O. 1994. Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, Z., K.L. Carder, S.K. Hawes, R.G. Steward, T.G. Peacock, and C.O. Davis. 1994. Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance . Appl. Opt. 33: 5721-5732.

Letelier, R.M., and M.R. Abbott. 1996. An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Remote Sensing Environ. 58: 215-223.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1997. Climate Measurement Requirements for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), Workshop Report, Herbert Jacobowitz (ed.), Office of Research Applications, NESDIS-NOAA, February. 77 pp.

Nelson, N.B., D.A. Siegel, and A.F. Michaels. 1998. Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea . Deep-Sea Res. 40: 931-957.

Sathyendranath, S., F.E. Hoge, T. Platt, and R.N. Swift. 1994. Detection of phytoplankton pigments from ocean color: Improved algorithms . Appl. Opt. 33: 1081-1089.

Subramanian, A., and E.J. Carpenter. 1994. An empirically-derived protocol for the detection of blooms of the marine cyanobacteria Trichodesmium using CZCS imagery. Int. J. Remote Sensing 15: 1559-1569.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement