prevention research; legal, ethical, and policy issues in HIV prevention; and primary prevention for men who have sex with women.
Approximately 10 percent ($182 million) of NIH’s AIDS-related budget supports basic, preclinical, and clinical research on candidate vaccine products (OAR, 2000a). The NIH also supports the Innovative Vaccine Grants Program, which provides one or two years of funding to investigators to explore new concepts in basic research related to AIDS vaccines. In addition, a cross-institute NIH Vaccine Research Center has been initiated, and which will be funded by intramural programs of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Cancer Institute (NIH, 1999).
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within DHHS with primary responsibility for supporting substance abuse treatment and prevention and mental health services. SAMHSA is comprised of three centers: the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS), the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), and the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). The Agency’s current HIV/AIDS-related activities include:
SAPT Block Grant: The Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) block grant is the largest program administered by SAMHSA, with approximately $1.6 billion in funding in FY99. Ninety-five percent of the SAPT block grant funds are distributed to states and territories, based on a formula established by Congress, to support substance abuse treatment and prevention services (SAMHSA, 2000b). While Congress provides general direction on how funds can be used, states have broad discretion in allocating these funds. Currently, however, little information exists about how the funds are used by states or about the effectiveness of programs that are funded. Efforts are under way to determine the outcomes of states’ programs (GAO, 2000).
SAPT Block Grant-Funded Early Intervention Services (HIV Set-Aside): As part of the ADAMHA Reorganization Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-321), Congress enacted a provision that requires states with an AIDS case rate of 10 or more per 100,000 population to use a portion (2–5 percent) of their SAPT block grant funding for early HIV-intervention services (SAMHSA, 2000b). These prevention activities may include: HIV education and risk reduction, counseling and testing, diagnostic services and assessment,