AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Survey (ACSUS), 56

AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP), 169

AIDS Education Training Centers, established under the Ryan White CARE Act of 1990, 170

AIDS incidence

versus allocation of HIV prevention funds, 32

CDC-allocation of HIV prevention funds versus, 32

estimates of, 141

by state, 32

AIDS pandemic

global, 140

projecting, 15

AIDS Research Program Evaluation Working Group, 76-77

AIDS service organizations (ASOs), 68

improving organizational capacity of, 72-73

Alaskan Natives, HIV prevention programs for, 171

Alcohol use, 107n

Alliance for Microbicide Development, 85-86, 90

Alliances, for health departments, 193

Allocating resources for HIV prevention, 5-6, 26-49.

See also HIV prevention investments

versus AIDS incidence by state, 32

assessing the cost-effectiveness of, 32-35

calculations for, 175-177

at the community level, 39

current allocation of federal, 28-32

at the national level, 39-46

optimizing, 44-46

state and local, 3, 46-47

a strategic vision for, 37

using epidemic impact as a measure of success, 35-37

Alternative barrier methods, 83-86

the female condom, 83-84

microbicides, 84-86

“America Responds to AIDS” (ARTA), 158

American Academy of Pediatrics, 118

American Foundation for AIDS Research, 90

American Indians, HIV prevention programs for, 171

American Journal of Public Health, 173

Anal intercourse, male condom use during, 36

Annual infections prevented

cost-effectiveness versus proportional allocation, 43

impact of investing in better, more expensive programs, 45

percentage improvement, 44

Antimicrobial therapies, advances in, 7

Antiretroviral therapies, 86-87

advances in, 2, 7, 14

HIV-infected persons receiving, 51

nevirapine, 34, 156

optimizing patient adherence to, 53-54

Public Health Service Task Force recommendations for use of, 34

zidovudine, 34, 142, 156

ARTA. See “America Responds to AIDS”

ASOs. See AIDS service organizations

Assessing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, in allocating resources, 32-35

At-risk populations, 2, 12, 99-100

B

“Back calculations,” 148

Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 119

Barrier methods, alternative, 83-86

Barrier products, 171

Barriers to HIV care, 98-128

access to drug abuse treatment, 106-116

access to sterile drug injection equipment, 114-116

comprehensive sex education and condom availability in schools, 116-120

HIV prevention in correctional settings, 120-128

lack of leadership, 104-105

misperceptions, 103-104

poverty, racism, and gender inequality, 98-100

requests for public comment on, 189-190

the sexual “code of silence,” 100-101

stigma of HIV/AIDS, 101-103



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