funded social and behavioral research that has yielded interventions that significantly reduce HIV-related risk behavior, thereby reducing HIV infection risk. Although such research projects are valuable for the development of better social and behavioral prevention tools, their findings typically have been disseminated in a very select manner (e.g., peer-reviewed articles) via very select mechanisms (e.g., clinical or academic journals and conferences) to a very select audience (e.g., other researchers). This strategy is effective in reaching mainly academic audiences, but it is ineffective in disseminating the methodologies and findings to those who need them the most: state- and local-level workers who are planning, developing, adapting, and implementing prevention activities in their communities.
In recognition of the need for greater dissemination of prevention technologies, the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) recommended in 1996 that the President “should instruct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to ensure that federally funded research on HIV prevention interventions include specific mechanisms for rapid dissemination of findings, including resources to allow replication of programs with demonstrated effectiveness” (PACHA, 1996). To address this, the CDC responded that its Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) project—which, at that time, was already in development—would meet the recommended objective. The PRS project created an ongoing database of HIV prevention interventions that were selected for their methodological rigor and that had substantial evidence of effectiveness. Additionally, the PRS project was charged with developing mechanisms for the dissemination and adoption of these interventions. For example, the project led to the development of the Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness (CDC, 1999a), the Characteristics of Reputationally Strong Programs Project (CDC, 2000b), and the CDC Behavioral and Social Science Volunteer Project (CDC, 2000a). The CDC and various partners also have provided technical assistance to support the implementation of science-based prevention.
These and other vehicles for improving access to research also have been developed by federal and private agencies and are available to the general public. Examples of these methods are presented in Table 5.1.1
Each of the resources listed in Table 5.1 provides brief descriptions of specific prevention interventions, including information about their meth-