IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA

Ocean Studies Board

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Library of Congress Catalog Number 00-107450 International Standard Book Number 0-309-07085-6 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING THE COLLECTION AND USE OF FISHERIES DATA PATRICK SULLIVAN (Chair), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KENNETH ABLE, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey CYNTHIA JONES, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia KAREN M. KAYE, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia BARBARA KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BRENDA NORCROSS, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ESTELLE RUSSEK-COHEN, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN SIBERT, University of Hawaii, Manoa STEPHEN SMITH, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada STEVEN K. THOMPSON, Pennsylvania State University, University Park RICHARD YOUNG, Commercial Fisherman, Crescent City, California Consultant JOHN G. POPE, NRC (Europe), Ltd. Staff EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Study Director ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK, (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey RAM MOHAN, Gahagan & Bryant Associates, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee PAUL TOBIN, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Fairfax, Virginia KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate SHIREL SMITH, Office Manager SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (emeritus), Knoxville ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: John Bailar (University of Chicago), Deb Southworth Green (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), David Hoel (Medical University of South Carolina), Pete Leipzig (Fishermen' s Marketing Association), Douglas Lipton (University of Maryland), Bonnie McCay (Rutgers University), Kenneth Pollock (North Carolina State University), Terrance Quinn (University of Alaska, Fairbanks), Jake Rice (Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans), David Sampson (Oregon State University), Larry Six (Consultant), and Andrew Solow (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). While the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA Preface Congress has promoted fisheries science for over a century and its involvement in fisheries management took a great leap forward with passage of the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In the past decade, Congress has requested advice from the National Research Council (NRC) on both national issues (e.g., individual fishing quotas and community development quotas) and the assessments related to specific fisheries (Northeast groundfish). This report was produced, in part, in response to another congressional request, this time related to the assessments of the summer flounder stocks along the East Coast of the United States. Following the initial request, the NRC, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and congressional staff agreed to broaden the study into a more comprehensive review of marine fisheries data collection, management, and use. National Research Council reviews of stock assessments result in unexpected tasks added to other responsibilities of stock assessment scientists and other NMFS personnel. The committee sent numerous questions to NMFS over the period of its study and NMFS was always responsive to the requests. Special thanks are due to David Sutherland, the committee's liaison at NMFS, and to Mark Terceiro, the stock assessment scientist responsible for summer flounder, who handled many queries from the committee. Mark also attended two of the committee 's meetings to answer questions about the intricacies of summer flounder assessments and how the different data sources are used. Other NMFS personnel—particularly William Fox, Mark Holliday, and Maury Osborn —were also helpful in the committee's work and the committee greatly appreciates their efforts. The committee thanks Karl Haflinger (SeaState, Inc.) and Bill Karp (NMFS) for providing figures for the report. The committee was fortunate to be able to engage John Pope as a consultant to the project and to enlist the help of Bob Mohn of the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans in assisting with the committee's analysis of summer flounder data. The committee could not have met its charge without substantial input from representatives of the commercial fishing industry, recreational fisheries sector, environmental advocacy groups, and others. Finally, the committee thanks Ed Urban and Ann Carlisle of the Ocean Studies Board staff for their support in carrying out this project. Patrick Sullivan Chair

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   9      Data Collection,   12      Biological Data,   12      Social and Economic Data,   13      Data Management,   14      Data Use,   15      Assessments,   15      Regulations and Management,   17      Content of Report,   19  2   SUMMER FLOUNDER: REVIEW AND INSIGHTS   20      Introduction,   20      Summer Flounder Assessment Issues,   21      Questions Related to the Biology and Population Dynamics of Summer Flounder,   22      Do the summer flounder found in waters north of Cape Hatteras comprise a unit stock of fish?,   23      What natural mortality rate is appropriate to use in summer flounder assessment models?,   25      Are there differences between the growth and mortality of male and female summer flounder (sexual dimorphism) and, if so, how do the differences affect the assessment?,   29      Questions Related to Summer Flounder Sampling,   30      What are the appropriate survey and commercial catchabilities of summer flounder?,   30

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA      Do problems with determining the age of summer flounder discredit age-based assessments?,   38      Are effort data used appropriately and are the effects of effort changes incorporated properly?,   40      Is the observer program for summer flounder adequate?,   41      Can and should state surveys be standardized?,   43      Is the catch from recreational fishing estimated properly?,   44      Can the precision of data be improved?,   46      Questions Related to the Information Content of the Model and Model Assumptions Currently in Use,   51      What information does each model structure require and how do these requirements relate to information in the data?,   51      Possible Improvements to the Summer Flounder Data Sets,   54      Tracking and Management of Data Precision,   57      A Role for Commercial and Recreational Fishermen in Data Collection,   57      New Sources of Recreational Fishery Data,   57  3   GENERAL ISSUES IN THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF FISHERIES DATA   59      What Are Fisheries Data?   59      Who Uses Fisheries Data?   60      Data Needed for Different Management Methods   62      Current State of the Fishery   62      Management Goals and System Response   64      Management Actions,   64      Data Quality Required,   65      Methods of Data Collection,   66      Data from Ceremonial and Subsistence Users,   66      Data from Fishery-Independent Surveys,   66      Ecosystem Data,   79      Environmental Data,   81      Fishery-Dependent Data,   81      Cooperation, Communication, and Review,   102      Data Management,   112      Confidentiality,   112      Institutional Arrangements for Data Management,   112      Fisheries Data Management Systems,   113      Commercial and Cooperative Data Management,   117      Data Quality Control Procedures,   118      Technologies for Data Management,   126      Data Use,   127      Uncertainties of Data in Stock Assessments,   127      Access to Data,   129      Management Information Needed by Councils,   129      Fisheries Data Discovery,   130      Cooperation and Communication,   130

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IMPROVING THE COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND USE OF MARINE FISHERIES DATA  4   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   131      Improving Data Collection,   133      Matching Data Collection Costs to Benefits from Fisheries,   133      Greater Use of Fishery-Dependent Data,   135      Minimizing and Accounting for “Data Fouling”,   136      Fishery-Independent Surveys,   136      Data from Commercial Fisheries,   142      Data from Recreational Fisheries,   147      Auxiliary Information,   150      Cooperation and Communication,   154      Review,   155      Improving Data Management,   156      Defining User Groups and User Needs,   156      Databases and Data Management Systems,   156      Institutional Arrangements,   157      Implementing Standards and Improving Quality Control,   158      Improving Technologies,   158      Review,   159      Improving Data Use,   159      Data in Stock Assessments,   159      Access to Fisheries Data,   160      Confidentiality,   160      Matching Management to Data Available,   161      Cooperation and Communication,   161      Uncertainty in Data, Models, and Model Outputs,   163      Review,   164      Research Needs,   165     REFERENCES   166     APPENDIXES       A Committee Biographies   177     B Acronyms   179     C Evaluation of Summer Flounder Surveys   181     D Review of Summer Flounder Assessments   197

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