EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY

Summary of a Workshop

Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control

Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, Melissa I. Bamba, and Nancy A. Crowell,Editors

Committee on Law and Justice

and

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY Summary of a Workshop Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, Melissa I. Bamba, and Nancy A. Crowell,Editors Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Grant No. 97-JN-FX-0020 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U. S. Department of Justice and the U. S. Department of Education, with grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Harry F. Guggenheim Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07193-3 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.,Lock Box 285,Washington, D.C. 20418 Call(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000) Education and Delinquency: Summary of a Workshop. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control, Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, Melissa I. Bamba, and Nancy A. Crowell, eds. Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop PANEL ON JUVENILE CRIME: PREVENTION, TREATMENT, AND CONTROL JOAN McCORD (Cochair), Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University CATHY SPATZ WIDOM (Cochair), School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany PATRICIA COHEN, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York ELIZABETH JANE COSTELLO, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University EUGENE EMORY, Department of Psychology, Emory University TONY FABELO, Texas Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin LAWRENCE GARY, School of Social Work, Howard University SANDRA GRAHAM, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles JOHN HAGAN, Department of Sociology, Northwestern University DARNELL HAWKINS, Departments of African American Studies and Sociology, University of Illinois, Chicago KENNETH LAND, Department of Sociology, Duke University STEVEN SCHLOSSMAN, Department of History, Carnegie Mellon University MERCER SULLIVAN, School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University VIOLA TALIAFERRO, Monroe Circuit Court, Bloomington, Indiana RICHARD TREMBLAY, Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montreal FRANKLIN ZIMRING, School of Law, University of California, Berkeley CINDY LEDERMAN (Liaison), Florida 11th Judicial Circuit Court, Juvenile Division, Dade County, Florida DANIEL NAGIN (Liaison), School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University NANCY A. CROWELL, Staff Officer MELISSA I. BAMBA, Research Associate GLENDA TYSON, Project Assistant (until April 1999) KAREN AUTREY, Senior Project Assistant (after April 1999)

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE CHARLES WELLFORD (Chair), Center for Applied Policy Studies and Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland JOAN PETERSILIA (Vice Chair), School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine ALFRED BLUMSTEIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University RUTH M. DAVIS, The Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia JEFFREY FAGAN, School of Public Health, Columbia University DARNELL HAWKINS, Department of African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago PHILIP HEYMANN, Center for Criminal Justice, Harvard Law School CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota MARK LIPSEY, Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University COLIN LOFTIN, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany JOHN MONAHAN, School of Law, University of Virginia DANIEL S. NAGIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University PETER REUTER, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland WESLEY SKOGAN, Center for Urban Affairs, Northwestern University KATE STITH, School of Law, Yale University MICHAEL TONRY, School of Law, University of Minnesota CATHY SPATZ WIDOM, School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany CAROL PETRIE, Director NANCY A. CROWELL, Staff Officer MELISSA BAMBA, Research Associate RALPH PATTERSON, Senior Project Assistant BRENDA MCLAUGHLIN, Project Assistant

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES EVAN CHARNEY (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts JAMES A. BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington SHEILA BURKE, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID CARD, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley DONALD COHEN, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale University MINDY FULLILOVE, Columbia University KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco MAXINE HAYES, Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University SHEILA KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University VONNIE McLOYD, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine PAUL WISE, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison, IOM Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention), Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University (emeritus) ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (Liaison, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology, Stanford University (emeritus) WILLIAM ROPER (Liaison, IOM Council), Institute of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop MICHELE D. KIPKE, Director MARY GRAHAM, Associate Director, Dissemination and Communications MARY STRIGARI, Administrative Associate ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Denise Gottfredson, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland; J. David Hawkins, Social Development Research Group and School of Social Work, University of Washington; Paul Kingery, Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence, George Washington University; Louis F. Miron, Department of Education, University of California, Irvine; and John Monahan, School of Law, University of Virginia. Although the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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EDUCATION AND DELINQUENCY: Summary of a Workshop Contents     Introduction   1     Defining and Measuring School Crime   4     Consequences of Crime Protection Measures in Schools   9      School Crime and Changes in School Climate,   9      Normalization of Violence,   11     Linking School Performance and Delinquency   13      Delinquent Peer Associations,   15      Peer Rejection,   16      Potential Harm of Grouping High-Risk Youth,   17      Common Factors,   18      Prediction,   19     Assessing Tracking, Suspension, Expulsion   21      Tracking,   23      Expulsion,   25     Facilitating Learning   28      Research on Mastery and Helpless Orientations,   29      Other Perspectives,   30     Afterword   35     References and Bibliography   37     Appendix: Workshop Agenda and Presenters   44

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