Recommendation: The use of simulants, data from animal models, and data on human exposure should be reevaluated as part of the development of a coherent research program to determine the physiological effects of both high-level and low-level long-term exposures to chemical and biological agents. The data should then be used to determine risks and challenges.

Training for CB operations has been very inconsistent, both within and among the services.

Recommendation: Required levels of training (with the appropriate level of funding for training devices and simultants) should be established and monitored for effective unit performance throughout the services. Objective criteria should be established for determining whether current service-specific training requirements are being met.

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