Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 78 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 2000

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-7035-X INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C.20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     ROBERT COOLEY ELDERFIELD BY NELSON J. LEONARD   3     GERTRUDE B. ELION BY MARY ELLEN AVERY   17     EDWARD VAUGHAN EVARTS BY WILLIAM THOMAS THACH, JR..   31     EDWARD C. FRANKLIN BY HENRY METZGER   45     CLIFFORD GROBSTEIN BY NORMAN K. WESSELLS   65     JEROME CLARKE HUNSAKER BY JACK L. KERREBROCK   95     PHILIP F. LOW BY W. R. GARDNER AND C. B. ROTH   109

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78     ROBERT FRANKLIN MEHL BY C. S. SMITH AND W. W. MULLINS   129     ROBERT SANDERSON MULLIKEN BY R. STEPHEN BERRY   147     WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS BY ROBERT G. SHULMAN   167     EDWARD MILLS PURCELL BY ROBERT V. POUND   183     REED CLARK ROLLINS BY IHSAN A. AL-SHEHBAZ   207     STANLEY SCHACHTER BY RICHARD E. NISBETT   223     GLENN THEODORE SEABORG BY DARLEANE C. HOFFMAN   237     GEORGE FREDERICK SPRAGUE BY ARNEL R. HALLAUER   259     ROBERT JULIUS TRUMPLER BY HAROLD F. WEAVER   277     GEORGE WALD BY JOHN E. DOWLING   299     JOHN C. WARNER BY TRUMAN P. KOHMAN   319     JEROME BERT WIESNER BY LOUIS D. SMULLIN   335     ALFRED P. WOLF BY JOANNA S. FOWLER AND MICHAEL J. WELCH   355

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 78 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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