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APPENDIX B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff JAMES G. MARCH is the Fred H. Merrill professor of management at Stanford University; he also holds appointments in political science, sociology, and education. From 1953 to 1964 he was professor at Carnegie Institute of Technology and from 1964 to 1970 was dean of social sciences at the University of California, Irvine. He has been a leading scholar in the field of organization behavior and management for 30 years. March, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has served on the National Science Board, on the National Council of Educational Research, and on advisory bodies for the National Science Foundation, the Social Science Research Council, and the National Research Council. He holds Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in political science from Yale University and four honorary doctorates. ARNOLD n. ARONS is professor of physics at the University of Washington, where he has been on the faculty since 1968. Previously he was on the faculty of Amherst College and Stevens Institute of Technology. His research has included explosion phenomena, physical oceanography, science education, and hydrodynamics. He has been a leader in the development of innovative curricula and instructional methods in science. He is a trustee of the Oceanographic Institute at Woods Hole, has served as consultant to the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, and has received several honorary awards for his contributions in physics and physics education. He has a Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Harvard University and M.E. and M.S. degrees from Stevens Institute of Technology. 86

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87 WILLIAM O. BARER, retired chairman of the board of Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., serves as chairman of Rockefeller University and the Andrew Mellon Foundation. For 25 years, he carried overall responsibility for research programs at Bell Labs. His persona' work has been on solid state and polymers; his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry is from Princeton University. Baker has served on numerous national commissions and advisory bodies concerned with science, technology, and education, including the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National Science Board, the National Science Board, and the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Currently, he chairs the Diplomatic Telecommunications Service Policy Board and the General Accounting Office Advisory Council; he serves on the Board of Higher Education of New Jersey and the Carneige Forum on Education and the Economy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. His contributions to American science and technology have been acknowledged by 25 honorary degrees and the Bush, Priestley, Gibbs, Madison, Perkin, and the President's National Security and National Technology awards, among others. JEROME S. BRUNER is George Herbert Mead university professor of experimental psychology at the New School for Social Research. From 1945 to 1973 he was professor of psychology at Harvard University; from 1960 to 1972 he was director of Harvard's Center for Cognitive Studies. His research in psychology has included the areas of perception, attention, learning, memory, early language acquisition, and problem solving by children. He is the recipient of many honorary degrees and processional awards, including the Distinguished Scientist Award of the American Psychological Association. Bruner has a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University. MICHAEL COLE is professor of psychology at the University of California, San Diego, where he is also director of the Laboratory for Comparative Human Cognition. Previously, he was a Ford Foundation fellow, an exchange scholar with Moscow university ana a professor at several other universities. His research has included the cultural context of learning, the psychology of literacy, and child development. He has a Ph.D. degree in psychology from Indiana University.

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88 ALLAN M. COLLINS is principal scientist at Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., with research interests in semantic information processing and education. He has been active in analyzing learning processes and developing computer-based tutoring systems for teaching reasoning. He recently directed a project for the Office of Naval Research to study the different kinds of conceptual models people have of complex systems. Be has a Ph.D. degree in psychology and an M.A. degree in communication sciences from the University of Michigan. MARGARET B. DAVIS is Regents professor of ecology at the University of Minnesota, where she was head of the Department of Ecology and Behavior from 1976 to 1981. She was on the faculty of the University of Michigan and a research biologist with the Great Lakes Research Division from 1961 to 1973, and was professor of biology at Yale University from 1973 to 1976. Her primary areas of research are Quaternary paleoecology and forest ecology. She is a past president of the American Quaternary Association and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. She has a Ph.D. degree in biology from Harvard University. FREDERICK ERICKSON is professor of education and medicine and a member of the Institute for Research in Teaching at Michigan State University, where he has been a faculty member since 1978. His research has focused on social and cultural factors in learning, ethnographic studies in education, and sociolinguistic study of cross- cultural communication. Erickson has been a consultant to many education and cross-cultural organizations. Be is past president of the Council for Anthropology and Education of the American Anthropological Association and is the editor of that society's journal Anthropology and Education Quarterly. He has a Ph.D. degree in education and anthropology and M.A. and B.A. degrees in music from Northwestern University. ROBERT GLASER is university professor of psychology and education and codirector and founder of the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. HiS recent research has focused on the cognitive psychology of learning, instructional psychology, expert/novice problem solving in science, and the effects of structures of knowledge on learning and reasoning skills. He is current president of the

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89 National Academy of Education, past president of the American Educational Research Association, and recipient of honorary degrees and awards including the Edward L. Thornedike medal of the American Psychological Association. He has a Ph.D. degree in psychological measurement and learning theory and an M.A. degree in experimental psychology from Indiana University and a B.S. degree in chemistry from City College of New York. ANDREW GLEASON is Hollis professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard University, where he has been on the faculty since 1950. His areas of research are topological groups and Banach algebras. Be is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has received the Cleveland Prize, and is a past president of the American Mathematical Society. He has an A.M. degree in mathematics from Harvard University and a B.S. degree in mathematics from Yale University. MICHAEL A. GUILLEN teaches mathematics and physics in the Core Curriculum Program at the Harvard University Science Center. His primary research specialities are kinetic theory, general and special relativity, and differential equations. His current research activities are chiefly in theoretical astrophysics. He has been active in communicating science to the public through newspaper and magazine articles, television programs, and as contributing editor of Science News and science consultant to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists. His most recent book is Bridges to Infinity: The Human Side of Mathematics. He has M.S. and Phi. degrees in physics, mathematics, and astronomy from Cornell University. JILL H. LARKIN is associate professor of psychology and director of the Center for Design of Educational Computing at Carnegie-Mellon University, where she has been on the faculty since 1978. Her research has focused on cognition and problem solving, knowledge acquisition in science, and the application of cognitive science to education computing. She has developed computer simulations to teach problem solving in the physical sciences. Larkin has a Ph.D. degree in science and mathematics education and an M.A. degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a B.A. in mathematics from Harvard University.

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so ROBERT G. LOEWY is professor of mechanical and aerospace science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. His areas of research are structural dynamics and aeroelasticity, unsteady aerodynamics, magnetohydro- dynamics, servomechanisms, and systems stability. Be is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Loewy has been a member of advisory groups to branches of the Department of Defense, a consultant to government agencies and private industry, and a member of the President's Science Advisory Board. Be has a Ph.D. degree in engineering mechanics from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a B.A.E. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. CORA B. MARRETT is professor of sociology and Afro-American studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where she has been a member of the faculty since 1974. She taught earlier at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and at Western Michigan University. Her research, conducted through the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, focuses on minority and female students in precollege mathematics and science. She serves as a member of the steering committee of Science World, a project sponsored by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, and as a board member for the Argonne National Laboratory. She has Ph.D. and M.A. degrees from the University of Wisconsin in sociology. SAMUEL MESSICK is vice president and distinguished research scientist at the Educational Testing Service, Inc., and adjunct professor of psychology at the City University of New York Graduate Center. Bis research has been concerned with psychometrics, test validity, prob- lems in human assessment, and cognition and personality. He has frequently been an adviser to federal agencies and an invited fellow and teacher at universities. Be has Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in psychology from Princeton University. PAUL E. PETERSON is program director of governmental studies at the Brookings Institution. From 1967 to 1983 he was professor of political science and education and also chairman of the committee on public policy studies at the University of Chicago. His research involves urban politics and policies, especially as they relate to

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91 race and education. Peterson has Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in political science from the University of Chicago. MARE TAAGEPERA is a lecturer in chemistry at the University of California, Irvine, where she has been on the faculty since 1975. She has been active in research in organic chemistry and has received several awards for outstanding teaching and leadership in science education. Taegepera is cofounder of a summer science institute for the retraining of elementary and secondary school class- room teachers. She has a Ph.D. degree in physical organic chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania. DAVID E. WILEY is dean and professor in the School of Education at Northwestern University, a position he has held since 1979. From 1965 to 1979, he was a faculty member in the Departments of Education and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Chicago. During that period, he was also resident adviser to the Venezuelan Ministry of Education and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. Wiley' S research interests include educational policy, teaching-learning processes, evaluation, psychometrics, statistics, and survey research. He holds a Ph.D. degree in educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin, an M.S. degree in statistics from the same institution, and an A.B. degree in mathematics from San Diego State University. SENTA A. RAIZEN is study director for the Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education and also study director for the Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education. Previously, she served as study director for committees concerned with the evaluation of educational programs and the assessment of scientific research. From 1914 to 1978, she was associate director of the National Institute of Education, in charge of programs to disseminate and apply research results to education; before that she was a senior researcher at the Rand Corporation and, for 10 years, a program official in science education at the National Science Foundation. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She received a B.S. degree in chemistry from Guilford College and an M.A. degree in physical chemistry from Bryn Mawr College. l

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92 ROLF K. BLANK has served as research associate to the committee for six months. Previously, he was education study director at the COSMOS Corporation and at James Lowry and Associates, where he conducted a national study of magnet schools. He received a B.A. degree in history from Luther College, an M.A. degree in educational policy studies from the University of Wisconsin, and a Ph.D. degree in sociology from Florida State University.