number of critical measurements, present techniques and instruments are simply not adequate.

An important challenge will be to construct appropriate instrumentation for these analyses. The necessary instrumentation is diverse, and includes advanced ion microprobes, mass spectrometers, and electron microscopes, as well as accelerator- and synchrotron-based analytical probes. This challenge, if met, is an important opportunity for the Earth science community. As evidenced by the blossoming of isotope geochemistry following the instrumentation campaign associated with the Apollo program, the creation of new techniques and capabilities can invigorate an entire field for many years.

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