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TABLE 2 Detection of Helicobacter Species 16S rRNA in Laboratory Mice Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

Species

No. Positive /

No. Tested in Samples

No. Positive /

No. Tested in Facilities

H. hepaticus

20 / 149

(13.4%)

1 / 17

(5.9%)

H. muridarum

0 / 149

(0%)

0 / 17

(0%)

H. bilis

0 / 149

(0%)

0 / 17

(0%)

H. rodentium

35 / 149

(23.5%)

6 / 17

(35.3%)

“F. rappini”

0 / 149

(0%)

0 / 17

(0%)

Others

26 / 149

(17.4%)

3 / 17

(17.6%)

Total

79 / 149

(53.0%)

10 / 17

(58.8%)

Because gerbils can be infected with H. pylori (Hirayama and others 1996), they are widely used for H. pylori infection studies. These results indicate the necessity of checking H. hepaticus contamination in gerbils. H. hepaticus and H. rodentium were the most common Helicobacter species in mice in Japan, and H. muridarum, H. bilis, and “F. rappini” were not detected.

REFERENCES

Battles, J.K., J.C. Williamson, K.M. Pike, P.L. Gorelick, J.M. Ward, and M.A. Gonda. 1995. Diagnostic assay for Helicobacter hepaticus based on nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:1344-1347.

Fox, J.G., F.E. Dewhirst, J.G. Tully, B.J. Paster, L. Yan, N.S. Taylor, M.J. Collins, Jr., P.L. Gorelick, and J.M. Ward. 1994. Helicobacter hepaticus sp. Nov., a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from livers and intestinal mucosal scrapings from mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:1238-1245.

Fox, J.G., L.L. Yan, F.E. Dewhirst, B.J. Paster, B. Shames, J.C. Murphy, A. Hayward, J.C. Belcher, and E.N. Mendes. 1995. Helicobacter bilis sp. Nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:445-454.

Hirayama, F., S. Takagi, Y. Yokoyama, E. Iwao, and Y. Ikeda. 1996. Establishment of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. J. Gastroenterol. 31:24-28.

Lee, A., M.W. Phillips, J.L. O'Rourke, B.J. Paster, F.E. Dewhirst, G.J. Fraser, J.G. Fox, L.I. Sly, P.J. Romaniuk, T.J. Trust, and S. Kouprach. 1992. Helicobacter muridarum sp. Nov., a microaerophilic helical bacterium with a novel ultrastructure isolated from the intestinal mucosa of rodents. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:27-36.

Shen, Z., J.G. Fox, F.E. Dewhirst, B.J. Paster, C.J. Foltz, L. Yan, B. Shames, and L. Perry. 1997. Helicobacter rodentium sp. Nov., a urease-negative Helicobacter species isolated from laboratory mice. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:627-634.

Schauer, D.B, N. Ghori, and S. Falkow. 1993. Isolation and characterization of “Flexispira rappini” from laboratory mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:2709-2714.



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