OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY

PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP

Board on Biology

Oceans Studies Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP Board on Biology Oceans Studies Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. These proceedings were supported by the Electric Power Research Institute through contract number RP8011-21; the Department of Energy through grant number DE-FG02-93ER61703; the National Science Foundation through grant number IBN-9211798; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce through grant number NA36RG0536; and the Presidents' Committee, National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07188-7 Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the a2uthority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP This page in the original is blank.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE ON OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY David Manyak, CEO and President, Oceanix Biosciences, Hanover, MD Judith McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA Roger C. Prince, Corporate Strategic Research Laboratory, Exxon/Mobil Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ Raymond A. Zilinskas, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, CA Staff Ralph B. Dell, Director, Board on Biology Susan Roberts, Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board Kathleen A. Beil, Administrative Assistant, Board on Biology Susan Vaupel, Editor, Board on Biology Marsha Williams, Project Assistant, Board on Biology

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP Preface These proceedings summarize a workshop held October 5-6, 1999, to discuss the role of marine biotechnology in preventing degradation of the environment as well as in remediation and restoration. The agenda is reprinted in Appendix A. Each speaker summarized the current state of knowledge for each topic and highlighted the research needs in each area. Participants discussed the development of strategies for preventing or inhibiting biofilm development, remediation of oil spills and of marsh pollution, restoration of coral reefs, and the effects of heavy metals, overgrowth of microbes, and algal blooms. They also highlighted our critical knowledge gaps. Any advice, findings, conclusions, or recommendations are strictly those of the author and do not reflect a consensus of the workshop as a whole. In addition to the speakers, those attending the workshop included representatives from the National Science Foundation, National Sea Grant Program of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Electric Power Research Institute, and Department of Energy, all of whom were sponsors of the workshop. We are indebted to these institutions for their sponsorship of the project and for their input during the workshop. This report has been reviewed by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purposes of the independent review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the Research Council in making the published report as accurate as possible and to ensure that the

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP proceedings accurately reflect the discussions at the workshop. The contents of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following persons for their participation in the review of this report: Keith Cooksey, Montana State University; Mark Hahn, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Garrett Smith, University of South Carolina; and Lilly Young, Rutgers University Biotechnical Center for Agriculture and Environment. Although the persons listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this proceeding rests solely with the speakers and discussants at the workshop.

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP Contents     Introduction and Goals Roger C. Prince, Linda Kupfer, and Maryanna Henkert   1     Bacterial Biofilms and Biofouling: Translational Research in Marine Biotechnology Marc W. Mittelman   3     Antifouling J. W. Costerton   8     Economic and Regulatory Aspects of Marine Biotechnology Raymond A. Zilinskas   14     Policy Considerations for Advancing Marine Biotechnology Lori Denno   18     Applications of Economics in the Field of Environmental Marine Biotechnology Diane Hite   25     Spilled Oil Bioremediation Lily Young   34     In Situ Bioremediation of Oiled Shoreline Environments Kenneth Lee   44     Contributions of Marine Biotechnology to Marsh Oil Spill Restoration Ralph J. Portier   61

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS OF THE OCTOBER 5-6, 1999, WORKSHOP     Constraints on the Use of Bioremediation in Wetlands Irving A. Mendelssohn   68     Restoration Judith McDowell   73     Opportunities for Biotechnology for Coral and Reef Restoration Aileen N. C. Morse   74     Coral Epidemiology Laurie L. Richardson   85     Use of Trace Metals in Marine Bioremediation: A Need for Fundamental Knowledge François M. M. Morel   96     Microbial Contamination Jed Fuhrman   102     Molecular Biology and Biotechnology in Marine Toxicology Mark E. Hahn and John J. Stegeman   112     Critical Needs in Harmful Algal Bloom Research JoAnn M. Burkholder   126     The Need for New Biotechnological Tools for Conservation of Marine Environments Michael Smolen   150     Social and Regulatory Aspects of the Marine Environment Raymond A. Zilinskas   154     Rapporteur Comments on the Bioremediation Session Roger C. Prince   161     Appendix A   171     Appendix B   175