Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program

Committee on Review of DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Committee on Review of DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DE-AM01-99PO80016, Task Order DE-AT01-99EE50621.A000 from the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07251-4 Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. HA-270 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3344 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313(in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF DOE'S OFFICE OF HEAVY VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES JOHN H. JOHNSON (chair), Michigan Technological University, Houghton CHARLES A. AMANN, NAE,1 General Motors Research Laboratories (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan WILLIAM L. BROWN, JR., Caterpillar Inc. (retired), Dunlap, Illinois DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison THOMAS A. KEIM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge PHILLIP MYERS, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison GARY ROGERS, FEV Engine Technology, Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan DALE F. STEIN, NAE, Michigan Technological University (retired), Tucson, Arizona JOHN WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation (retired), Princeton, New Jersey GORDON WRIGHT, Ford Motor Company (retired), Plymouth, Michigan Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, senior project assistant and financial associate (BEES) ANA-MARIA IGNAT, project assistant (BEES) CAROL R. ARENBERG, editor, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems 1   NAE = National Academy of Engineering

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L. HIRSCH (chair), Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Washington, D.C. RICHARD E. BALZHISER, NAE,1 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (retired), Menlo Park, California WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE, University of Texas, Austin CHRISTOPHER FLAVIN, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM FULKERSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) and University of Tennessee, Knoxville EDWIN E. KINTNER, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Norwich, Vermont GERALD L. KULCINSKI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBERT W. SHAW, JR., Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire JACK SIEGEL, Energy Resources International, Inc., Washington, D.C. ROBERT SOCOLOW, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey K. ANNE STREET, consultant, Arlington, Virginia KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JACK WHITE, The Winslow Group, LLC, Fairfax, Virginia JOHN J. WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Company (retired), Princeton, New Jersey Liaison Members from Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RUTH M. DAVIS, NAE, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia E. GAIL DE PLANQUE, NAE, consultant, Potomac, Maryland LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, SAIC, San Diego, California Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director RICHARD CAMPBELL, program officer SUSANNA CLARENDON, financial associate ANA-MARIA IGNAT, project assistant 1   NAE = National Academy of Engineering

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank the representatives of DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies who contributed significantly of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study, either by giving presentations at meetings, responding to committee requests for information, or hosting site visits. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of other individuals who provided information on advanced vehicle technologies and development initiatives (see Appendix B). Finally, the chairman wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the NRC Board on Energy and Environmental Systems for organizing and planning committee meetings and gathering information and writing sections of the report. Jim Zucchetto has in particular done an outstanding job of facilitating the work of the committee, which required reviewing a significant amount of background material and helping the committee to focus on writing a concise and timely report. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gary Borman, University of Wisconsin (retired); Norman A. Gjostein, University of Michigan, Dearborn; Jason Mark, Union of Concerned Scientists; John P. McTague, Ford Motor Company (retired); Vernon Roan, University of Florida; Dean P. Stanley, Navistar International (retired); C. Michael Walton, University of Texas. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   6      Summary of OHVT's Activities and Budget,   11      21st Century Truck Initiative,   11      Scope and Origin of This Study,   11      Study Process and Organization of Report,   13      References,   13  2   PROGRAM ASSESSMENTS   14      Overall Strategy and Goals,   14      Improving Energy Efficiency,   15      Vehicle Technologies,   16      Fuels Utilization,   28      Transportation Materials Technologies,   30      Environment and Health Issues,   31      References,   31  3   OVERALL FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   33     APPENDIXES       A  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   39     B  Presentations and Committee Activities,   41     C  Funding for Research and Development on Combustion and After-treatment Technologies,   43     D  Funding for Materials Research and Development Projects,   44     ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS   46

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Tables and Figures Tables  1-1   Emissions from Light Trucks and Heavy Vehicles in 1997,   9  1-2   Full-Life Exhaust Emission “Bins,”   10  1-3   Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Emission Standards and Complete Vehicle Standards,   10  1-4   California LEV II Exhaust Emission Standards,   11  1-5   OHVT Budget by Activity,   12  2-1   Distribution of Fuel Energy for a Truck Engine,   16  2-2   Indicated Work Distribution for a Truck Engine,   17  C-1   Funding for Projects on Combustion and Emission Control,   43  D-1   Funding for Projects on Propulsion System Materials,   44  D-2   Funding for Projects on High-Strength, Weight-Reduction Materials,   45 FIGURES  1-1   Truck classification by gross vehicle weight (GVW),   7  1-2   Number of Class 7 and 8 trucks in use, 1982–1997,   8  1-3   Energy use by trucks, 1970–2020,   8  1-4   Comparison of current vehicle emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and final Tier 2 standards,   9  1-5   Comparison of current vehicle emission standards for particulate matter (PM) and final Tier 2 standards,   10  2-1   Average fuel-energy distribution for an automobile,   16  2-2   Accessories, aerodynamic drag, and rolling friction as a function of highway speed for a typical Class 8 tractor trailer,   17  2-3   Projected contributions of advanced technologies to diesel engine efficiency,   18  2-4   Increasing the efficiency of diesel engines and brake-specific fuel consumption for research and production engines,   21