standardized data models, and to come up with a more-regular syntax. ” The result is that only a minority of all biology databases are available over the Internet for the interoperation engines to use. In the future, advances in tools designed for the World Wide Web, in combination with advances in databases and in other forms of software, are likely to make more biology data more easily available. This will involve progress in multiple components of computer science and attention to the specific interests of biologists as data generators and users. It will also require biologists to present their needs in ways that excite database experts and other computer scientists to overcome the expertise scarcity noted by Karp.

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