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ture review. Planning and design are critical steps for successful establishment of MPAs and reserves, and these issues are presented in Chapter 6. After a marine reserve has been established, monitoring and research are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the reserve in attaining management goals. Chapter 7 describes approaches that can be used to evaluate reserve performance. Chapter 8 describes the international history of MPAs and critiques the current system of MPAs and reserves in the United States. Finally, in Chapter 9, the committee presents its conclusions and recommendations.

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