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    6. How do closures affect various user groups, including the interests of future generations?

    7. Do attitudes and compliance change over time in communities bordering reserves?

Fishery and resource managers should develop and implement management policies that place more emphasis on spatial approaches to experimentally “explore” their systems and to increase our understanding of how fishing impacts the ecosystem. Much of the research described above will further our understanding of the spatial dimension of fishing and enhance our use of spatial management tools, including rotating fishing zones, experimental policy zones, temporary recovery areas, and spatially limited entry licenses and quotas. Such tools have been applied sparingly in marine fishery management, but they are likely to be valuable approaches for controlling effort and fishing mortality. Also, spatial tools have the potential to allow simultaneous comparisons of different regulatory policies using zoning to delineate replicated management areas. This is necessary to account for the interannual variability in conditions that also affect resources. Thus, instead of relying on uniform, fishery-wide, steady-state policies and statistics, managers and fishery scientists could separate areas for different fishing “treatments” without necessarily reducing the targeted yield for the fishery. In this model, reserves serve as controls to provide baseline values for management experiments.

Also, fishery managers should develop data-gathering systems that enable finer spatial analysis of exploited ecosystems. Many fishery management systems now utilize aggregate and fishery-wide data gathering. Increasing the emphasis on spatial regulations will require more consideration of the location of fishing activity and more spatially oriented stock assessment tools. Modern global positioning system (GPS) technology, vessel monitoring systems (VMSs), and data entry systems are in place in many fisheries already. The use of these tools should be encouraged and expanded, with the aim of increasing the understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of fishing activity and yield.

Supporting MPAs Through Institutional Coordination

The design, implementation, and monitoring of MPAs and reserves require effective institutional structures at federal, state, and local levels of management. Regional coordination of management will be required to establish networks of MPAs and to designate zones for specific uses. As emphasized earlier, fragmented management policies may result in different agencies working at cross-purposes. Hence, integration of management among agencies is essential, and current programs should work together to develop a policy on MPAs. In developing this policy, agencies should recognize all groups with strong interests in the sea, ensuring opportunities for input from those concerned with biological diversity, ecosystem functioning, and the protection of the nation's ma-



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