Page 257

Index

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~ enlarge ~

A

Abalone, 21-22, 79, 90-91, 93
Aesthetics, 11, 21, 28, 42, 45-47, 59, 98, 181, 216, 241, 242, 244-245
location of reserves, 98, 100-101
Age structure of fish stocks, 124, 127, 131, 153, 177, 178
Agricultural activities, 74
runoff, 3, 11,134, 166, 172
wetland drainage, 74
Alaska, 37, 55, 120, 164, 165, 166, 169, 250
Algae, 28, 82, 95-96, 129
blooms, 5, 73
declines in cover, 19
Alien species,
see Invasive species
Allee effect, 93, 114, 254
defined, 214
American Fisheries Society, 19
American Samoa, 154
Archaeological Resources Protection Act, 169
Area closures, 20, 21, 23, 35, 64, 71-95, 123, 154, 164, 169, 170, 176, 182, 183, 247, 248, 250
see also Sanctuaries;
Temporal closures bycatch and, 23, 24
cost-benefit analysis, 55, 58
grouper spawning aggregation sites, 26
location of, 6, 97-111, 132, 181
monitoring, 55, 58, 132
multispecies fisheries, general, 23, 124
overfishing causing, 11, 61, 116
rotating closures, 34, 35, 124
size of, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256
zoning plans, 119-120, 124
Artificial reefs, 74
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 38
Attitudes,
see Public opinion
Australia, 15, 130
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 20, 105
fisheries, zoning plans, 119-120

B


Barents Sea, 249
Baseline and benchmark studies, 27, 78, 153
Belize, 130
Benthic habitat,
see Seabeds
Bering Sea, 164


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Page 257 Index ~ enlarge ~ A Abalone, 21-22, 79, 90-91, 93 Aesthetics, 11, 21, 28, 42, 45-47, 59, 98, 181, 216, 241, 242, 244-245 location of reserves, 98, 100-101 Age structure of fish stocks, 124, 127, 131, 153, 177, 178 Agricultural activities, 74 runoff, 3, 11,134, 166, 172 wetland drainage, 74 Alaska, 37, 55, 120, 164, 165, 166, 169, 250 Algae, 28, 82, 95-96, 129 blooms, 5, 73 declines in cover, 19 Alien species, see Invasive species Allee effect, 93, 114, 254 defined, 214 American Fisheries Society, 19 American Samoa, 154 Archaeological Resources Protection Act, 169 Area closures, 20, 21, 23, 35, 64, 71-95, 123, 154, 164, 169, 170, 176, 182, 183, 247, 248, 250 see also Sanctuaries; Temporal closures bycatch and, 23, 24 cost-benefit analysis, 55, 58 grouper spawning aggregation sites, 26 location of, 6, 97-111, 132, 181 monitoring, 55, 58, 132 multispecies fisheries, general, 23, 124 overfishing causing, 11, 61, 116 rotating closures, 34, 35, 124 size of, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 zoning plans, 119-120, 124 Artificial reefs, 74 Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, 38 Attitudes, see Public opinion Australia, 15, 130 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 20, 105 fisheries, zoning plans, 119-120 B Barents Sea, 249 Baseline and benchmark studies, 27, 78, 153 Belize, 130 Benthic habitat, see Seabeds Bering Sea, 164

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Page 258 Biodiversity, general, ix , xi , 1, 3, 4-5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 17, 21, 22, 32, 49, 72, 81-84, 138-139, 149, 164, 171-172, 179-180, 181, 237, 238, 243, 245 see also Extinction; Genetic diversity; Rare, threatened, and endangered speciesbenthic habitat, 24 bycatch and, 32 defined, 214 location of reserves, 99-102, 103, 105, 107, 181 monitoring, 130 recommendations, 177-178 Shannon-Weiner diversity, 85-87 Bioeconomic models, 144, 249, 251, 252 Biogeographic factors, 5, 68, 69, 137, 143, 149, 177, 180, 254-255 location of reserves, 98-106 (passim) Biomass spawning stock biomass, 61, 101, 175, 180, 218, 249, 250, 252, 253 stock, general, 27, 32, 49, 55, 72, 75, 79, 80, 81, 85-87, 90, 93, 112, 116, 128, 131, 144, 178, 250-253 (passim) Biomass overflow, see Spillover Birds, see Waterfowl Body size, fish, 27, 32, 35, 36, 38, 41, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 85-87, 88, 90, 93-94, 124, 131, 144, 172, 174-175, 177 Bottom trawling, 13, 22, 24, 74, 96, 110, 119-120, 165 Buffer zones, 94, 116, 177 cost-benefit analysis, 48 defined, 214 Bycatch, 3, 5, 22, 23, 26, 31-32, 34, 111, 175, 178 see also Discards area closures, 23, 24 defined, 31-32 red snapper, Gulf of Mexico, 73 uncertainty, 41 C California, 107, 124, 151, 165, 166, 170, 171 Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, 106, 159, 170 Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 159 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 170 wetland losses, 74 Canada, 15, 55, 69, 96 cod, 23, 30, 132, 174, 248 Gulf of Maine, 109 hydrothermal vents, 111 location of reserves, 103 Cape Point Nature Reserve, 100-101 Caribbean Sea, 80, 91, 109, 127, 132, 146, 251 Cuba, 20, 109 Dry Tortugas, 68, 99, 130, 151, 155, 159-160 Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), 12, 20, 64-65, 82, 84, 97, 99, 102, 116, 129, 130, 132, 159, 160 Jamaica, 84, 95-96, 132 St. Lucia, 80, 96, 116, 130 Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, 106, 159, 170 Chile, 130 Circulation patterns, see Current and circulation patterns Clean Water Act, 168, 169, 172, 233 Closures, see Area closures; Temporal closures Coastal Barrens Resources Act, 169 Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 74, 151-152, 161, 169, 172, 232 Coastal zones, ix , 2, 3, 4, 13, 21, 28, 40, 42, 77, 123, 166, 171, 184, 253-255 see also Recreational uses; Regional fishery management councils; Wetlands community-level factors, 3, 14, 28, 42, 43, 59, 66-70, 181 estuaries, 13, 21, 38, 74, 77, 103, 105, 160-161, 166, 170, 171, 243 exclusive economic zones, 20, 38, 39, 149, 180, 215 historical perspectives, 43, 146, 149 integrated management, 123, 159 location of reserves, 5, 103, 109-110, 181 migratory species, 38 military reservations, 166 public trust property, 20

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Page 259 size of reserves, 115, 118 temperature factors, 43 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18, 19 zoning plans, 120, 121, 124, 159 Cod, 30, 35, 38, 55, 76, 95, 113, 114, 132, 140, 174, 248, 249, 250, 252, 254 Georges Bank, 23, 30, 132 Newfoundland, 30 Community-level factors (human), 14, 28, 42, 43, 59, 71, 147, 173, 181-182, 242-245 (passim) coastal zones, 3, 14, 28, 42, 43, 59, 66-70, 181 definition of community, 66 economic factors, 121, 122; see also Socioeconomic factors enforcement and compliance, 12, 66, 67, 70, 102, 181, 183 international community-based approach, 66, 68-69 location of reserves, 97-98 monitoring, 67 partnerships, 66-70 zoning plans, 121, 122 COMPARE (Criteria and Objectives for Marine Protected Area Evaluation), 99-102 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 169 Connectivity, 5, 7, 8, 99, 105, 112, 115-116, 135-138, 144, 155, 177, 255, 234, 255-256 defined, 215 Contingent value method, 51, 52, 63 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 147 Convention on Biological Diversity, 20, 150 Convention on Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 146, 147 Convention on Fishing, 147 Convention on the Continental Shelf, 146, 147 Convention on the High Seas, 146, 147 Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, 146 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 146, 147 Coral reefs, 1, 6, 23, 32, 33, 46-47, 72, 74, 77, 95-96, 107, 109, 151, 154, 180, 243, 253 genetic research, 137 larval dispersal, 91 location of reserves, 99, 104-105 monitoring, 127, 130, 132 overfishing, 23, 25 recruitment, 129, 253 size of reserves, 111-112, 114, 116 Coral Reef Task Force, 111 Core areas, 119, 180, 255 defined, 215 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 1, 3, 9, 15, 23, 27-28, 42, 46-66, 72, 142-143, 179, 252, 254-255 see also Nonmarket values area closures, 55, 58 buffer zones, 48 contingent value method, 51, 52, 63 enforcement, 48, 55, 72, 98, 102, 107, 179 monitoring, 48, 59, 126, 132 overfishing, 61 property rights, 48-49, 59, 60 recreation uses, 48, 51-52, 54, 59 research, 48, 84, 126, 142-143, 251 size of reserves, 113, 114 stock assessments, 41 zoning plans, 48, 121, 122 Criteria and Objectives for Marine Protected Area Evaluation, see COMPARE Cuba, 20, 109 Cultural factors, 4, 17, 21, 28-29, 45-46, 48, 59, 67, 156, 181, 233, 237-245(passim) see also Aesthetics; Heritage value definitions, 215 ethics, environmental, 43-45, 113, 141-142, 215, 247 freedom of the seas, 2, 10-11, 20 location of reserves, 98 historical sites, 4, 28-29, 45-46, 100-101, 103, 215-216, 237 zoning plans, 118 Current and circulation patterns, 5 location of reserves, 103 terrestrial and marine ecosystems compared, 18

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Page 260 D Definitional issues, 214-218, 233 community, 66 ecological reserve, 12, 215 essential fish habitat, 75 fishery reserve, 12 glossary of terms, 214-218 habitat/species management area, 243 location of reserves, 106 managed resource protected area, 245 marine protected area, 1, 11-12, 216, 233, 237 marine reserve . 1, 12, 141, 148, 216, 238 monitoring, 126-127, 216 national park, 240-241 natural monument, 242 networks, 106, 217 protected landscape/seascape, 244 wilderness, 170, 239 Department of Commerce, xi-xii , 234-235 see also National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Marine Fisheries Service Department of the Interior, xi-xii , 8, 234-235 see also Fish and Wildlife Service; National Park Service Discards, 23, 34, 39 see also Bycatch uncertainty in estimates of, 41 Dispersal, 5-6, 8, 17, 18-19, 22, 27-28, 75, 84, 94-95, 114, 136-138, 177, 182, 254 density effects on recruitment and growth, 140 larval, 75, 88-92, 133 location of reserves, 98, 99, 105, 109 multispecies and trophic models, 144 sea urchins, 254 size of reserves, 114, 117 spillover, 75, 76, 84, 88, 91, 94-95, 107, 117, 139, 177, 254 tagging studies, 91, 95, 139-140 Diving and dive operators, 32, 42, 46-47, 48, 63, 64, 66, 119, 160, 175 Dredging, 2, 7, 13, 74, 77, 96, 159, 165 Dry Tortugas, 64-65, 68, 99, 130, 151, 155, 159-160 E Economic factors, 3, 8, 20, 21, 31, 38-39, 40, 58, 59, 60-66, 74, 244, 245, 249, 252 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Fisheries and fisheries management; Funding; Non-market values; Property rights; Sustainability community-level, 28, 181; see also Socioeconomic factors location of reserves, 97-98 monitoring, 126, 127, 131, 134-135 public opinion, environmental values vs , 44 research, 4, 234; see also Funding zoning plans, 121, 122 Ecosystem-based approach/management, general, 1, 5, 7, 10, 15, 17, 31, 32, 40, 126, 142, 154-155, 172-173, 175-176, 237, 239 see also Biodiversity; Genetic diversity defined, 215 location of reserves, 99, 104 monitoring, 129 unexploited species, 138 zoning plans, 120 Education, see Internet; Professional education; Public education EEZ, see Exclusive economic zones Endangered species, see Rare, threatened, and endangered species Endangered Species Act, 166-167, 168, 232 Endeavor Hot Vents Area, 111 Endemism, 19, 104, 110, 136, 177, 255 defined,, 215 hydrothermal vents, 6, 110 Enforcement and compliance, 7, 12, 39, 55, 72, 79, 98, 152, 155, 162, 165, 184, 234, 236 community factors, 12, 66, 67, 70, 102, 181, 183 cost factors, 48, 55, 72, 98, 102, 107, 179 funding, 8, 184 geographic factors, general, 72 historical perspectives, 151 location of reserves, 118 zoning, 121, 122, 123 Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond, 150

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Page 261 Environmental Protection Agency, 184, 235 National Environmental Policy Act, 168, 169, 233 Environmental services, xi , 21, 28, 32, 42, 47-51 (passim), 107, 152, 154, 172, 173, 176, 178, 237, 238, 244-245 Essential fish habitats, 8, 22, 75 Estuaries, 13, 21, 38, 77, 103, 105, 160-161, 166, 171, 243 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 74, 160-161, 170 Ethics, environmental, 43-45, 113, 141-142, 247 defined, 215 Europe, 11 Exclusive economic zones, 20, 38, 39, 149, 180 defined, 215 Executive orders, xi-xii , 8, 96, 107, 166, 171, 232-236 Existence value, see Heritage value Exotic species, 11, 77 wetlands, 74 Extinction, 21-22, 77, 83, 110 see also Rare, threatened, and endangered species allee effect, 93, 114, 214, 254 American Fisheries Society, 19 geographic factors, 77, 83 habitat destruction and, 18 metapopulations, 18, 113, 116, 249 defined, 216 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18 time factors, 248 F Federal government, xi-xii , 4, 153 see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies cultural landscapes, 46 executive orders, xi-xii , 8, 96, 107, 166, 171, 232-236 interagency coordination, 3, 4, 8, 171, 175, 183-184, 234-235 military reservations, 166 Federal Land Policy and Management Act, 165 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 168, 169 Fiji, 130 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 169 Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 3, 15, 153, 161-162, 184 Fisheries and fisheries management, ix , xi , 1, 3, 4-5, 13, 14, 22-27, 30-41, 48, 54-69, 154, 162-165, 171, 172, 174-175, 178-179, 246-257 see also Area closures; Bycatch; Fishing quotas; National Marine Fisheries Service; Regional fishery management councils; Overfishing; Replenishment; Spawning and rearing habitat; Temporal closures; Total allowable catch (TAC); specific species age structure of stocks, 124, 127, 131, 153, 177, 178 bottom trawling, 13, 22, 24, 74, 96, 110, 119-120, 165 committee study methodology, 15 conventional management, xi , 1, 2-3, 8-9, 13, 14, 15, 23, 27-28, 30-41, 58, 63-66, 77, 105, 112, 143, 174-175, 179, 180 see also Fishing quotas; Stock assessments discards, 23, 34, 39, 41; see also Bycatch essential fish habitats, 8, 22, 75 exclusive economic zones, 20, 38, 39, 149, 180, 215 fixed exploitation rate strategies, 56-57 gear restrictions, 36, 38, 39, 47, 119-120, 164, 165, 248 location of reserves, 97-98, 99, 100-101, 104, 105, 110, 111 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 14, 35, 39, 55, 59, 61, 66, 74-75, 162, 164-165, 175-176, 232 maximum sustainable yield, 33, 35, 40, 174, 216 monitoring, 127-128, 131-132, 134-135, 172 see also Enforcement and compliance; Stock assessments open access, 1, 2, 10-11, 20, 31, 44-45, 63, 72, 217, 247, 252

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Page 262 pollution, 2, 75 recreational, 39, 42, 54, 97, 114, 119, 154, 160, 162, 175, 253-254 regional fishery management councils, 26, 38, 39, 60-61, 64, 72, 162-165, 176, 217, 235 research, 7-8, 27-28, 139-141, 143, 144, 172, 176, 247-256; see also “monitoring” supra reserve defined, 12 sex ratios, 25, 26, 27, 93-94 size of reserves, 112-117 (passim), 121, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 spatial factors, 32, 33-35, 55, 56, 58, 59, 127-128, 131, 183; see also Area closures sustainability, 14, 28, 30, 32, 33, 46, 49, 59, 74-75, 114, 177-178, 180, 251 maximum sustainable yield, 33, 35, 40, 174, 216 total allowable catch (TAC), 27, 37, 39, 62, 218 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 19 total allowable catch (TAC), 27, 37, 39, 62, 218 uncertainty, 38-39, 40-41, 112, 172, 249 stock assessments, 26-27, 30, 31, 38, 40, 112, 113, 247-248, 249 total allowable catch (TAC), 37 zoning plans, 7, 119, 120, 122-124 Fishing quotas, 23, 26, 27, 36, 37-38, 41, 55, 56 individual fishing quotas, ix , 14, 39, 216 individual transferable quotas, 49, 62, 216 total allowable catch (TAC), 27, 37, 39, 62, 218 Fixed exploitation rate strategies, 56-57 Florida, 109, 151 Dry Tortugas, 64-65, 68, 99, 130, 151, 155, 159-160 Oculina Bank, 72, 82 Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), 12, 20, 64-65, 82, 84, 97, 99, 102, 116, 129, 130, 132, 159, 160 Flounder, 23, 90 Food Security Act, 74 Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act, 165 Forest Service, 165-166 Funding, 233, 234 committee study at hand, 15 enforcement, 8, 184 monitoring, 8, 130 National Marine Sanctuary program, 160 national parks, 155, 157 G Galapagos Marine Reserve, 255 Gear restrictions, 36, 38, 39, 47, 119-120, 164, 165, 248 Genetic diversity, 5, 10, 18, 22, 136-137, 142, 156, 175, 238, 239, 255 see also Biodiversity endemism, 6, 19, 104, 110, 136, 177, 215, 255 dispersal and, 92 sex ratios, 27 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18, 19 Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea, 146, 147 Georges Bank, 12, 23, 30, 132, 165 Geographical factors, 10, 77 see also Area closures; Networks and networking; Regional factors; Regional fishery management councils; Site identification; Spatial factors; Zoning and zoning plans core areas, 119, 180, 215, 255 extinction, 77, 83 fishery management, general, 38, 55 implementation and enforcement, 72 size of reserves and protected areas, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 130, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 17-18 Geographic information systems, 46 Glacier Bay, 12, 151, 154, 155, 156-157 Global positioning system, 183 Government role, 3, 239-246 (passim) see also Federal government; Funding; Local government; Political factors; Regulatory issues; State government interagency coordination, 3, 4, 8, 171, 175, 183-184, 234-235 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 20, 105

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Page 263 Grotius, Hugo, 2 Groundfish, 55 see also specific species area closures, 26 fishery reserves, 12 quotas, 26 mixed-species stocks, 30 overfishing, 30, 174 Grouper, 25-26, 94 Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas , 69, 149, 150 Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories , 149, 237-246 Gulf of Alaska, 164, 250 Gulf of Maine, 109 Gulf of Mexico, 163, 165, 172 grouper, area closures, 26 red snapper, 73, 252 H Habitat areas of particular concern (HAPC), 40, 78, 180 see also Rare, threatened, and endangered species Habitat maps, 5, 105 Halibut, 26, 31, 55 Hardin, Garitt, 20, 44 Hawaii, 170-171 Hedonic analysis, 50-51, 52 Herbivores, 19, 82, 95-96, 129, 130 Heritage value (existence value), 4, 17, 28-29, 32, 42-43, 47, 52, 61, 63, 98, 103, 154-155, 176, 183-184, 242 defined, 215-216 historical sites, 4, 28-29, 45-46, 100-101, 103, 215-216, 237 Historical perspectives, 11, 16, 17, 39, 55, 145-173 coastal zones, 43, 146, 149 endangered species, 5, 18 enforcement, 151 freedom of the seas, 2, 10-11, 20 public property rights, 20, 44-45 sanctuaries, 145-151, 155-170 terrestrial vs marine area conservation, 17 wetlands, 2, 146, 147 Historical sites, 4, 28-29, 45-46, 100-101, 103, 215-216, 237 Hydrothermal vents, 6, 110-111, 180 I IUCN, see World Conservation Union Individual fishing quotas, ix , 14, 39 defined, 216 Individual transferable quotas, 49, 62 defined, 216 Institutional factors, 3, 8, 41, 123, 239-246 (passim) see also Enforcement and compliance; Government role; Integrated management; Regional fishery management councils; Regulatory issues cost-benefit analysis, 48 interagency coordination, 3, 4, 8, 171, 175, 183-184, 234-235 national parks, 241; see also National Park Service zoning plans, 121-122 Integrated management, 2, 4, 12, 13, 66, 68, 69, 148, 175, 181, 234 coastal zones, 123, 159 cultural landscapes, 45 defined, 216 location of reserves, 5 models, 63 national, 40 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 20 International Maritime Organization, 20 International perspectives, 16, 20, 70, 145-151, 184, 236 see also specific countries ; terms beginning “United Nations” and “World” community-based approach, 66, 68-69 conventions, 20, 146-150 (passim) coordination, 4, 66, 68-69 essential fish habitat, 75 Europe, 11 fisheries, 3, 20, 39, 145-146 exclusive economic zones, 20, 38, 39, 149, 180, 215 historical perspectives, 145-151; see also “conventions” supra hydrothermal vents, 110-111 jurisdictional issues, 3, 108-109, 111, 148; see also “exclusive economic zones” supra location of reserves, 108-109, 110-111

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Page 264 monitoring, 130 replenishment, 76 International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), see World Conservation Union Internet Alaskan areas, 166 Gulf of Maine, 109 hydrothermal vents, 110-111 international conventions, 146 migratory waterfowl, 161-162 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 161 National Marine Sanctuary program, 160 rockfish, 24 InterRidge program, 110-111 Invasive species, see Exotic species J Jamaica, 84, 95-96, 132 K Kelp, 22, 75, 105, 129, 133, 181 Kenya, 127, 129, 130 Key Largo, 97 L Larval stage, 24, 28, 76, 137, 143-144 dispersal, 75, 88-92, 133 recruitment, 93-94, 132 replenishment, 91, 133 seabeds, 24, 91 sedentary and nonmigratory species, 19 temperature factors, 88 Law of the Sea, see Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Legislation, 107, 151-152, 162, 184 Archaeological Resources Protection Act, 169 Clean Water Acts, 168, 169, 172, 233 Coastal Barrens Resources Act, 169 Coastal Zone Management Act, 74, 151-152, 161, 169, 172, 232 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 169 Endangered Species Act, 166-167, 168, 232 Federal Land Policy and Management Act, 165 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 168, 169 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 169 Food Security Act, 74 Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act, 165 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 14, 35, 39, 55, 59, 61, 66, 74-75, 162, 164-165, 175-176, 232 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 166-167, 168-169, 232 Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act, 169 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, 155-160, 169 Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act, 165 National Environmental Policy Act, 168, 169, 233 National Historic Preservation Act, 46, 232 National Marine Sanctuaries Act, 78, 232 National Park Service Organic Act, 232 National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, 232 National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act, 162 Ocean Dumping Act, 168, 169 Oil Pollution Act, 168, 169 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 169, 233 public property rights, 20 various, 165-171, 232-233 Wilderness Act, 169-170, 232 Litigation, 154 Lobsters, 130 Local factors, see Commnity-level factors Local government, 172-173, 184 federal coordination with, 4, 8, 171, 184 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 161 Location of reserves, see Site identification

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Page 265 M Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA), 14, 35, 39, 55, 59, 61, 66, 74-75, 162, 164-165, 175-176, 232 Mangroves, 22, 28, 105, 146 Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A Guide for Planners and Managers , 150 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 166-167, 168-169, 232 Marine mammals Marine Mammal Protection Act, 166, 167, 168 sea lions, 40, 169 whales, 51-52, 54, 181 see also Whales Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act, 169 Marine Protected Area Center, 8, 235 Marine Protected Area Federal Advisory Committee, 235 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, 155-160, 169 MARPOL, see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships Mathematical models and modeling, 36, 56-57, 142, 143-144 Maximum sustainable yield, 33, 35, 40, 174 defined, 216 Mediterranean Sea, 130, 146 Metapopulations, 18, 113, 116, 249 defined, 216 MSFCMA, see Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Mid-Atlantic Regional Fishery Management Council, 38, 163 Migratory species, 34, 95, 95, 143 see also specific species coastal, 38 fishery management councils, 38 jurisdictional issues, 39 location of reserves, 98-99 size of reserves, 116 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18 waterfowl, 10, 18, 42, 103, 111, 146, 147, 161-162 Military reservations, 166 Models and modeling, 8, 36, 41, 56-57, 71, 79-95, 140-144 (passim), 247-256 (passim) bioeconomic, 144, 249, 251, 252 integrated management, 63 location of reserves, 99-102, 107-108 mathematical, 36, 56-57, 142, 143-144 metapopulation, 18, 113, 116, 216, 249 multispecies, 34, 144 single-species, 33, 174-175, 251 size of reserves, 112, 113-114, 116, 117, 178-179 stock assessment, 36, 49, 56-57, 72, 76, 180, 182, 183, 247-248 trophic, 82, 144 Mineral, including oil and natural gas, resources, 2, 7 . 48, 156, 157, 159, 171 location of reserves, 104-105, 110 Oil Pollution Act, 168 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 169, 233 Monitoring, 7, 8, 16, 126-135, 138, 182-183, 184, 234, 239 see also Enforcement and compliance; Research; Stock assessments area closures, 55, 58, 132 baseline and benchmark studies, 27, 78, 153 biodiversity, 130 community-level, 67 coral reefs, 127, 130, 132 costs, 48, 59, 126, 132 defined, 126-127, 216 economic factors, monitoring of, 126, 127, 131, 134-135 export function, 132-133 fisheries, general, 127-128, 131-132, 134-135, 172 funding, 8, 130 international, 130 location of reserves, 98, 101 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 161 overfishing, 129, 132 pollution, 127, 134 predator/prey relations, 129, 131 public opinion, 126, 127, 131, 134-135 recovery rates, 132, 133-134 recruitment, 128, 131, 132, 133 regional factors, 131, 184

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Page 266 sanctuaries, general, 7, 8, 16, 126-135 size of reserves, 116 social factors, 126, 127, 131, 134-135; see also “community-level” and “public opinion” supra socioeconomic factors, 126, 127, 131, 134-135, 216 spatial factors, other, 127-128, 130, 131 systematics, 128, 129, 130, 142, 152 tagging studies, 91, 95, 139-140 temporal factors, 127-128, 130, 131 vessel monitoring systems, 183 Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 159 MSY, see Maximum sustainable yield Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act, 165 Multispecies fisheries, general, 36-37, 40 see also Bycatch area closures, 23, 124 groundfish, 30 models, 34, 144 zoning plans, 124 N National Environmental Policy Act, 168, 169, 233 National Estuary Program, 184 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 74, 160-161, 184, 212 National Forest Service, 153 National Historic Preservation Act, 46, 232 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 15, 151, 162, 164-165, 169, 175-176, 184 defined, 216 grouper, area closures, 26 red snapper bycatch, Gulf of Mexico, 73 National Marine Sanctuaries Act, 78, 232 National Marine Sanctuary Program, 6, 15, 20, 78, 105, 123, 151, 153, 155-160, 162, 184 see also specific sanctuaries National Ocean Service, 155, 161 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 3, 8, 15, 64-65, 107, 151, 155, 160, 161, 235 see also National Marine Fisheries Service National parks, 5, 151, 154-157, 240-241 see also National Marine Sanctuary Program National Park Service, 3, 15, 151, 153, 154, 156-157, 184 National Park Service Organic Act, 232 National Registry of Historic Places, 46 National Wildlife Refuges, 161-162 National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, 232 National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act, 162 Nature Conservancy, 170 Natural mortality, 8, 72, 73, 141, 176 predator/prey relationships, 3, 31, 43, 82, 88-89, 95, 129, 131, 175 Networks and networking, 6-7, 152, 170, 176 connectivity, 5, 7, 8, 99, 105, 112, 115-116, 135-138, 144, 155, 177, 215, 255, 234, 255-256 defined, 106, 217 location of reserves, 99, 102, 104, 105-109 migratory waterfowl, 161-162 size of reserves, 112, 115-116 New England Fishery Management Council, 163, 165, 234 New Zealand, 15, 80, 129, 130, 247 Non-market values, 42, 47, 47, 48, 49-54, 59 see also Aesthetics; Cultural factors; Environmental services; Heritage values; Historical sites; Recreational uses contingent value method, 51, 52, 63 hedonic analysis, 50-51, 52 unexploited species, studies of, 138-139 Nonnative species, see Exotic species Nontarget species, see Bycatch North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 26, 163, 165 Nova Scotia, 96 Nursery habitat, see Spawning and rearing habitat Nutrients, 5 agricultural runoff, 3, 11,134, 166, 172 monitoring, 134 recycling, 21 O Ocean Dumping Act, 168, 169 Oculina Banks, 72, 82 Oil Pollution Act, 168, 169 Oil resources, see Mineral, including and oil and natural gas, resources

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Page 267 Olympic National Marine Sanctuary, 159 Open access, 1, 2, 10-11, 20, 31, 44-45, 63, 72, 247, 252 defined, 217 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 169, 233 Overfishing, 10, 2, 11, 13, 21, 14, 30-31, 47, 59, 66, 73, 174, 177, 178-179, 251, 252, 253 area closures and, 11, 61, 116 coral reefs, 23, 25 cost-benefit analysis, 61 cultural factors, 2, 10-11, 20 fishery reserves, 12, 23-24 groundfish, 30, 174 grouper, 25 locale of stocks, 5 location of reserves, 111 monitoring, 129, 132 number of stocks, worldwide, 11 Pacific giant clams, 21 size of reserves, 116 zoning plans, 124 P Pacific Fishery Management Council, 163, 165 Philippines, 79, 80, 116, 130 Plaice, see Flounder Political factors, 3, 38, 42, 47-48, 60-63, 64, 108-109 see also Public opinion location of reserves, 98 Pollock, 40, 124, 167, 169 Pollution, 2, 3, 6, 77, 123, 78, 159, 166, 170, 235 see also Mineral, including oil and natural gas, resources agricultural runoff, 3, 11,134, 166, 172 algal blooms, 5, 73 Clean Water Act, 168, 169, 172, 233 fish habitat, 2, 75 location of reserves, 104, 109-110 Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act, 169 monitoring, 127, 134 Ocean Dumping Act, 168, 169 Oil Pollution Act, 168, 169 wetlands, 74 zoning plans, 77-78 Population dynamics, 2-3, 73, 79, 132, 140-141, 143-144 Precautionary approach, 14, 39, 52, 74-75, 113, 165, 180, 176, 249 defined, 217 zoning plans, 123, 124 Predator/prey relationships, 3, 31, 43, 82, 88-89, 95, 175 monitoring, 129, 131 Professional education, 3, 72, 239, 241 see also Internet Property rights, 61-63, 44, 38, 60, 61-63, 70, 239, 241, 243, 245, 246 cost-benefit analysis, 48-49, 59, 60 open access, 1, 2, 10-11, 20, 31, 44-45, 63, 72, 217, 247, 252 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 19 Public education, 3, 4, 28, 63, 72, 155, 160, 239, 241, 243 see also Internet location of reserves, 98, 101 zoning plans, 122 Public opinion, 11, 20, 42-45, 64, 70, 157, 159, 162, 164, 174, 182, 183, 184 see also Political factors marine vs terrestrial ecosystems, 18, 19-20 monitoring, 126, 127, 131, 134-135 zoning plans, 121, 122 Q Quotas, see Fishing quotas; Individual fishing quotas; Individual transferable quotas R Ramsar Convention, see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat Rare, threatened, and endangered species, 4, 5, 10, 21-22, 38 see also Extinction Endangered Species Act, 166, 167, 168, 232 endemism, 19, 104, 110, 136, 177, 215, 255

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Page 268 hydrothermal vents, 6, 110 location of reserves, 100-101, 104, 105 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18, 19 zoning plans, 118-119, 120 Rearing habitat, see Spawning and rearing habitat Recreation uses, 1, 3, 4, 8, 12, 28, 39, 42, 63, 66, 170, 240, 241, 244 see also Aesthetics; National parks; Public education catch-and-release fishing, 119 cost-benefit analysis, 48, 51-52, 54, 59 diving and dive operators, 32, 42, 46-47, 48, 63, 64, 66, 119, 160, 175 fishing, 39, 42, 54, 97, 114, 119, 154, 160, 162, 175, 253-254 location of reserves, 97, 98, 100-101, 107, 181 zoning plans, 119 Recruitment and growth, 28, 33, 76, 84, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 107, 178 coral reefs, 129, 253 defined, 217 dispersal effects, 140 larval, 93-94, 132 monitoring, 128, 131, 132, 133 overfishing, 93, 112, 113, 248-254 (passim) defined, 217 research, 136, 140-143, 248-254 (passim) size of reserves, 113, 114, 115, 117 sources and sinks, 18, 60, 93-94, 107-108, 133, 217-218 Red snapper, 73, 114, 252 Reef Fishery Plan Development Team, 112 Reefs, see Artificial reefs; Coral reefs Regional factors, 4, 8, 137-138, 180, 245 biogeographic, 5, 68, 69, 98-107(passim), 137, 143, 149, 177, 180, 254, 255 extinction, 84 location of reserves, 98-106 (passim) monitoring, 131, 184 size of reserves, 117 Regional fishery management councils, 38, 39, 60-61, 64, 72, 162-165, 176, 235 bycatch, 26 defined, 217 Regional Seas Programme, 146, 148 Regulatory issues, 3, 8, 23, 47-49, 180 see also Enforcement and compliance; Fisheries and fisheries management; International perspectives; Legislation; Regional fishery management councils; Zoning and zoning plans Replenishment and replenishment zones, 23, 75-76, 77, 64, 83, 84-86 export monitoring, 133 larval, 91, 133 sources and sinks, 93 spillover of adult fish, 84, 88 Replication of habitats, 28, 99, 114, 115, 116, 127, 183, 255 Research, 3, 4, 7-8, 27-28, 48, 63, 71-95, 126, 135-143, 155, 176, 182-183, 234, 237, 184, 239, 247-256 see also Internet; Models and modeling; Monitoring; Stock assessments; Uncertainty baseline and benchmark studies, 27, 78, 153 committee study methodology, 14-16 contingent value method, 51, 52, 63 cost-benefit analysis, 48, 84, 126, 142-143, 251 economic factors, 4, 234; see also Funding; “cost-benefit analysis” supra fisheries, 7-8, 27-28, 139-141, 143, 144, 172, 176, 247-256; see also Stock assessments hedonic analysis, 50-51, 52 hydrothermal vents, 110-111 location of reserves, 98, 101, 181-182 non-market values, 50-51, 52 recruitment, 136, 140-143, 248-254(passim) sanctuaries, general, 141-143, 247-256 seabeds, 141 systematics, 128, 129, 130, 142, 152 tagging studies, 91, 95, 139-140 zoning plans, 118, 119, 122, 126 Rockfish, 113 northern Pacific, 26, 33, 34, 114, 250, 251 U.S. west coast, 24 Rotating closures, 34, 35, 124 Runoff, 3, 11, 134, 166, 172

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Page 269 S Saba Marine Park, 80, 130 Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago, 20 Safety, 104 Salmon, 55, 124 Sanctuaries, 71-95 see also Networks and networking; Site identification; Zoning plans; specific sanctuaries international historical perspectives, 145-151 location of, 6, 97-111, 132 map of U.S. sanctuaries, 158 monitoring, general, 7, 8, 16, 126-135 National Marine Sanctuary Program, 6, 15, 20, 78, 105, 123, 151, 153, 155-160, 162, 184; see also specific sanctuaries recommendations, 176-184 research, 141-143, 247-256 size of, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 130, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 U.S. historical perspectives, 155-170 wilderness, 11, 169-170, 232, 237, 239-240 Satellites, see Global positioning system Scallops, 90 Sea lions, 40, 169 Sea urchins, 90, 93, 95-96, 114, 125, 129, 130, 253, 254 Seabeds, 7 see also Coral reefs artificial reefs, 74 biodiversity, 74 dredging, 2, 7, 13, 74, 77, 96, 159, 165 larval and juvenile development, 24, 91 research-related disturbances, 141 seamounts, 6, 46, 110, 180 trawling damage, 13, 22, 24, 74, 96, 110, 119-120, 165 Seagrass, 28, 72, 74, 75, 103, 133, 146, 103 Seamounts, 6, 46, 110, 180 Seasonal restrictions, 31, 36, 38, 55, 119, 123, 174 see also Temporal closures Sedentary and nonmigratory species, 19, 34, 130 see also Coral reefs; Seabeds Sedimentation, 5, 172 agricultural runoff, 3, 11,134, 166, 172 Sex ratios, fish populations, 25, 26, 27, 93-94 Shannon-Weiner diversity, 85-87 Sharks, 19, 111 Shrimp, 99 red snapper bycatch, 73 Sinks, see Sources and sinks Site identification, 5-7, 97-111 (passim), 118, 132, 164, 165, 181-182 see also Zoning and zoning plans aesthetics, 98, 100-101 area closures, 6, 97-111, 132, 181 biodiversity, 99-102, 103, 105, 107, 181 biogeographic factors, 98-106 (passim) coastal zones, 5, 103, 109-110, 181 community factors, 97-98 coral reefs, 99, 104-105 cultural factors, 98 current and circulation patterns, 103 definitional issues, 106 dispersal factors, 98, 99, 105, 109 economic factors, 97-98 ecosystem approach, 99, 104 educational opportunities, 98, 101 enforcement factors, 118 fisheries management, general, 97-98, 99, 100-101, 104, 105, 110, 111 integrated management and, 5 international waters, 108-109, 110-111 migratory species, 98-99 models and modeling, 99-102, 107-108 mineral resources, 104-105, 110 monitoring, 98, 101 networks and networking, 99, 102, 104, 105-109 overfishing, 111 political factors, 98 pollution, 104, 109-110 rare, threatened, and endangered species, 100-101, 104, 105 recreation uses, 97, 98, 100-101, 107, 181 regional factors, 98-107 (passim) research opportunities, 98, 101, 181-182 size of, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 social factors, 97-98, 99, 100-101 spawning aggregation sites, 105 terrestrial ecosystems, 100-101, 103, 109-110 wetlands, 103 Size of fish, see Body size

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Page 270 Social factors, 4, 3, 43, 43-46, 54, 177 see also Aesthetics; Community-level factors (human); Cultural factors; Heritage value; Historical sites; Political factors; Public education; Public opinion; Recreational uses ethics, environmental, 43-45, 113, 141-142, 247 215, grouper sex change, 25, 26 location of reserves, 97-98, 99, 100-101 monitoring, 126, 127, 131, 134-135 safety, 104 voluntary support, 67-68 zoning plans, 118, 121 Socioeconomic factors, xi , 6, 42, 59, 65, 68, 69, 118, 121, 125, 126, 181, 244 monitoring, 126, 127, 131, 134-135, 216 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 20-21 Sources and sinks, 18, 60, 93-94, 107-108, 133 defined, 217-218 South Africa, 101-102, 130, 132-133, 254-255 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 163 Spatial factors, 71-72, 123, 183, 248, 256 see also Area closures; Connectivity; Dispersal; Geographic factors; Networks and networking; Temporal closures; Zoning and zoning plans core areas, 119, 180, 215, 255 endemism, 6, 19, 104, 110, 136, 177, 215 extinction, 83 fisheries, 32, 33-35, 55, 56, 58, 59, 127-128, 131, 183; see also Area closures; Dispersal monitoring, 127-128, 130, 131 natural variability, 78-79 size of reserves, 6, 97, 99, 100-101, 111-118, 121, 130, 132, 178-179, 243, 255-256 stock assessments, 32, 33-34, 183 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 17-18 Spawning aggregation sites, 22, 24, 72, 243 grouper, 25-26 location of reserves, 105 red snapper, Gulf of Mexico, 73 size of reserves, 116 zoning plans, 120 Spawning and rearing habitat, 5, 24, 72, 76, 96, 172, 175, 177, 181 see also Larval stage allee effect, 93, 114, 214, 254 essential, 75 location of reserves, 105 monitoring, 131 size of reserves, 6, 112 Spawning stock biomass, 61, 101, 175, 180, 249, 250, 252, 253 defined 180(n.1), 218 Species diversity, see Biodiversity; Genetic diversity Spillover, 75, 76, 84, 88, 91, 94-95, 107, 117, 139, 177, 254 Stanford University, 139 State government, 170-171, 172-173 agency coordination, 4, 8, 171, 183-184, 234-235 fisheries management, 38, 39, 154, 163, 172 National Estuarine Research Reserves, 74, 160-161, 170 parks, 151, 152-153 St. Lucia, 80, 96, 116, 130 Stock assessments, ix , 31, 34, 32-34, 36, 37, 59, 66, 131, 132, 249 see also Recruitment age structure, 124, 127, 131, 177, 178 cost-benefit analysis, 41 models, 36, 49, 56-57, 72, 76, 180, 182, 183, 247-248 red snapper, Gulf of Mexico, 73 single-species, 33, 73 spatial factors, 32, 33-34, 183 temporal closures and, 247-248 temporal factors, other, 30, 32, 33-34, 40, 55 uncertainty, 26-27, 30, 31, 37-38, 40-41, 66, 76-78, 79-80, 112, 113, 247-248, 249 Sumilon Islands, 69 Sustainablity, 2, 13, 17, 28, 177, 233, 237, 245-246 see also Overfishing defined, 218, 245 fisheries, 14, 28, 30, 32, 33, 46, 49, 59, 74-75, 114, 177-178, 180, 251 maximum sustainable yield, 33, 35, 40, 174, 216

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Page 271 total allowable catch (TAC), 27, 37, 39, 62, 218 Swordfish, 19, 95, 111 Systematics, 128, 129, 130, 142, 152 T TAC, see Total allowable catch (TAC) Tagging studies, 91, 95, 139-140 Tanzania, 130 Taxonomy, see Systematics Temperate zones, general, 2, 94 fisheries, 33-34 Temperature factors, 3, 44, 75, 77, 78, 134 coastal, 43 larval dispersal, 88 Temporal closures, 31, 33-34, 36-37, 38, 40, 123, 174, 248 see also Seasonal restrictions rotating closures, 34, 35, 124 stock assessments, 247-248 zoning plans, 123 Temporal factors, general abundance and diversity recovery, 108 cost-benefit analysis, 179 disasters, 256 extinction, 248 fish body size, 81 fisheries management, 36, 172, 183 seasonal restrictions, 31, 36, 38, 55, 119, 123, 174 stock assessments, 30, 32, 33-34, 40, 55 see also Temporal closures monitoring, 127-128, 130, 131 natural variability, 78-79 terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18 zoning plans, 122 Terrestrial ecosystems, 5, 11, 13-14, 15, 98, 165-166, 170, 172, 239, 244-245 see also Coastal zones; Wetlands agricultural activities, 3, 11, 74, 134, 166, 172 human perception, marine ecosystems vs , 18, 19-20 location of reserves, 100-101, 103, 109-110 marine ecosystems compared, 17-20, 169-170 runoff, 3, 11, 134, 166, 172 Wilderness Act, 169-170 Territorial use rights fisheries, 17, 62 exclusive economic zones, 20, 38, 39, 149, 180, 215 Texas Flower Gardens, 72 Threatened species, see Rare, threatened, and endangered species Time factors, see Temporal factors, general; Temporal closures Tortugas, see Dry Tortugas Total allowable catch (TAC), 27, 37, 39, 62, 218 defined, 218 Trawling, see Bottom trawling Trophic models, 82, 144 Tropical zones, general, 2, 94 Tourism, see Recreational uses Tuna, 30 U Uncertainty, 13, 14, 31, 180, 184 bycatch and discards, 41 extinction, 248 fishery management systems, general, 38-39, 40-41, 112, 172, 249 natural variability, 78-79 size of reserves, 112, 113, 116 stock assessments, 26-27, 30, 31, 37-38, 40-41, 66, 76-78, 79-80, 112, 113, 247-248, 249 total allowable catch (TAC), 37 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 20, 146, 148, 149, 150 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 148 United Nations Environment Programme, 146, 147-148 V Vents, see Hydrothermal vents Vessel monitoring systems, 183 Virgin Islands, 91, 109, 233, 235, 236 Voluntary support, 67-68

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Page 272 W Washington State, 124, 151, 170 Waterfowl, 10, 18, 42, 103, 111, 146, 147, 161-162 Water quality, 5, 127, 171 see also Pollution algal blooms, 5, 73 Wetlands, 6, 18, 74, 77, 243 exotic species, 74 fish habitat, 2 historical perspectives, 2, 146, 147 location of reserves, 103 mangroves, 22, 28, 105, 146 pollution of, 74 Wilderness, 11, 169-170, 232, 237, 239-240 Wilderness Act, 169-170, 232 Whales, 51-52, 54, 181 World Conservation Strategy, 68, 146, 150 World Conservation Union, 11, 68-69, 98, 111, 146, 148, 149, 150, 237-246 World Heritage Convention, see Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage World Wide Web, see Internet World Wildlife Fund, 146, 150 Z Zoning and zoning plans, 5, 6-7, 77-78, 99, 107-108, 118-123, 125, 159, 164, 176, 238 see also Buffer zones area closures, 119-120, 124 buffer zones, 48, 94, 116, 177, 214 coastal zones, 120, 121, 124, 159 community-level factors, 121, 122 cost-benefit analysis, 48, 121, 122 cultural factors, 118 definitions, 12, 218 economic factors, 121, 122 education, 122 enforcement, 121, 122, 123 fisheries management, 7, 119, 120, 122-124 monitoring, 126 overfishing, 124 pollution, 77-78 precautionary approach, 123, 124 public opinion, 121, 122 rare, threatened, and endangered species, 118-119, 120 recreation uses, 119 research, 118, 119, 122, 126 social factors, 118, 121; see also “community-level factors” supra spawning aggregation sites, 120 temporal closures, 123