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size of reserves, 115, 118
temperature factors, 43
terrestrial vs marine ecosystems, 18, 19
zoning plans, 120, 121, 124, 159
Cod, 30, 35, 38, 55, 76, 95, 113, 114, 132, 140, 174, 248, 249, 250, 252, 254
Georges Bank, 23, 30, 132
Newfoundland, 30
Community-level factors (human), 14, 28, 42, 43, 59, 71, 147, 173, 181-182, 242-245 (passim)
coastal zones, 3, 14, 28, 42, 43, 59, 66-70, 181
definition of community, 66
economic factors, 121, 122;
see also Socioeconomic factors
enforcement and compliance, 12, 66, 67, 70, 102, 181, 183
international community-based approach, 66, 68-69
location of reserves, 97-98
monitoring, 67
partnerships, 66-70
zoning plans, 121, 122
COMPARE (Criteria and Objectives for Marine Protected Area Evaluation), 99-102
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act, 169
Connectivity, 5, 7, 8, 99, 105, 112, 115-116, 135-138, 144, 155, 177, 255, 234, 255-256
defined, 215
Contingent value method, 51, 52, 63
Convention for the Protection of the World
Cultural and Natural Heritage, 147
Convention on Biological Diversity, 20, 150
Convention on Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 146, 147
Convention on Fishing, 147
Convention on the Continental Shelf, 146, 147
Convention on the High Seas, 146, 147
Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, 146
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 146, 147
Coral reefs, 1, 6, 23, 32, 33, 46-47, 72, 74, 77, 95-96, 107, 109, 151, 154, 180, 243, 253
genetic research, 137
larval dispersal, 91
location of reserves, 99, 104-105
monitoring, 127, 130, 132
overfishing, 23, 25
recruitment, 129, 253
size of reserves, 111-112, 114, 116
Coral Reef Task Force, 111
Core areas, 119, 180, 255
defined, 215
Cost and cost-benefit factors, 1, 3, 9, 15, 23, 27-28, 42, 46-66, 72, 142-143, 179, 252, 254-255
see also Nonmarket values
area closures, 55, 58
buffer zones, 48
contingent value method, 51, 52, 63
enforcement, 48, 55, 72, 98, 102, 107, 179
monitoring, 48, 59, 126, 132
overfishing, 61
property rights, 48-49, 59, 60
recreation uses, 48, 51-52, 54, 59
research, 48, 84, 126, 142-143, 251
size of reserves, 113, 114
stock assessments, 41
zoning plans, 48, 121, 122
Criteria and Objectives for Marine Protected Area Evaluation,
see COMPARE
Cuba, 20, 109
Cultural factors, 4, 17, 21, 28-29, 45-46, 48, 59, 67, 156, 181, 233, 237-245(passim)
see also Aesthetics;
Heritage value definitions, 215
ethics, environmental, 43-45, 113, 141-142, 215, 247
freedom of the seas, 2, 10-11, 20
location of reserves, 98
historical sites, 4, 28-29, 45-46, 100-101, 103, 215-216, 237
zoning plans, 118
Current and circulation patterns, 5
location of reserves, 103
terrestrial and marine ecosystems compared, 18


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