About the Authors
BRADEN R. ALLENBY is the environment, health, and safety vice president for AT&T and an adjunct professor at Columbia University, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the University of Virginia. From 1995 to 1997 he was director for energy and environmental systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and in 1992 he was the J. Herbert Hollomon Fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Allenby graduated from Yale University in 1972 and holds a J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School, an M.A. in economics from the University of Virginia, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental sciences from Rutgers University. Dr. Allenby is a member of the Advisory Committee of the United Nations Environmental Programme’s Working Group on Product Design for Sustainability, the board of directors of the Environmental Law Institute, and the scientific advisory board of the DOE/DOD/EPA Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. He is on the editorial boards for the Journal of Industrial Ecology, the Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, and the Journal of Sustainable Product Design. Dr. Allenby has written extensively on industrial ecology and design for the environment. He authored the first industrial ecology policy textbook and coauthored the first engineering textbook on industrial ecology. He is the Batten Fellow, Darden Graduate School of Business, University of Virginia; a member of the Virginia Bar; and a fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.
GEORGE BUGLIARELLO is the chancellor and former president (1973–1994) of Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, New York, and holds an Sc.D. degree
from MIT. A past president of Sigma Xi, the scientific research society, Dr. Bugliarello is a founding fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering and a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Bugliarello has chaired the Board of Science and Technology for International Development and the Board on Infrastructure and Constructed Environment of the National Research Council. His international experience includes consultancies abroad for UNESCO and OECD. He is the U.S. member of NATO’s Science for Peace Steering Group, and was previously the U.S. member of NATO’s Science for Stability Steering Group. He is founder and coeditor of Technology in Society: An International Journal and the interim editor in chief of The Bridge, a quarterly published by the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Bugliarello has spearheaded the creation of Metrotech, the nation’s largest urban university-industry park.
ROBERT W. CORELL is a senior research fellow with the Environment and Natural Resources Program at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and a senior fellow in the Atmospheric Policy Program of the American Meteorological Society. Prior to January 2000, he was assistant director for geosciences at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Corell served as chair of the National Science and Technology Council committee that oversees the U.S. global change research program and has served as chair and principal U.S. delegate to international bodies with interests in research on climate and global change. Dr. Corell’s research is focused on the sciences of global change and interfaces between science and public policy. He is chair of the steering committee for the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, an international assessment of the effects of climate variability and change and increases in ultraviolet radiation. Dr. Corell is an oceanographer and engineer. He earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the Case Institute of Technology and MIT.
JOHN H. (JACK) GIBBONS served from February 1993 to April 1998 as assistant to the president for science and technology and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Since leaving the White House, Dr. Gibbons has continued to be actively involved in a variety of public and private service activities, including the International Energy Panel of the President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, the steering committee of the National Climate Assessment, and the Committee of Advisors of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. He received a B.S. in mathematics and chemistry from Randolph-Macon College, a Ph.D. in physics from Duke University, and has been awarded six honorary doctorates. He has received numerous awards and published extensively in the areas of energy and environmental policy, energy supply and demand, conservation, technology and policy, resource and environmental management, nuclear physics, and the origins of solar system elements. He is currently a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering, special
advisor to the U.S. Department of State, and president-elect of Sigma Xi, the scientific research society.
EDWARD A. HILER, vice chancellor for agriculture and life science, dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Science, director of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and director of the Texas Agricultural Extension Service, provides overall leadership for the agriculture program of the Texas A&M University System. He earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in agricultural engineering at Ohio State University and is a licensed professional engineer in Texas. Dr. Hiler has served as a consultant to Congress, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and several universities throughout the United States and Europe on water conservation, environmental quality, energy from biological processes, and the future of agricultural engineering. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a past president of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institution of Agricultural Engineers in England. Dr. Hiler is the author or coauthor of more than 100 publications.
ANITA K. JONES is the Lawrence R. Quarles Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Virginia. From 1993 to 1997 she served as director of defense research and engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), where she was responsible for management of the science and technology program, oversight of DOD laboratories, and was the principal advisor to the secretary of defense for defense-related scientific and technical matters. Professor Jones is currently the vice chair of the National Science Board, which advises the president on science and engineering and oversees the National Science Foundation. She is also a member of the Defense Science Board, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Corporation, and the Board of Directors of Science Applications International Corporation. She has received the Computing Research Association’s Service Award, the Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Award, and the Department of Defense Award for Distinguished Public Service. Professor Jones holds an A.B. from Rice University in mathematics, an M.A. in literature from the University of Texas, Austin, and a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.
JERRY M. MELILLO is a research scientist and codirector of the Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Dr. Melillo’s research on biogeochemistry has focused on the global carbon cycle, the ecological consequences of tropical deforestation, and the impacts of climate change on land ecosystems. He founded the Marine Biological Laboratory’s semester in environmental science, a program that brings undergraduates from small liberal arts colleges and universities to Woods Hole to work on environmental science. He holds a B.A. from Wesleyan University and a Ph.D. from
Yale University, has served as associate director for environment in the president’s Office of Science and Technology Policy, and is currently directing an assessment for the federal government on the impacts of climate change.
NORMAN P. NEUREITER is science and technology advisor to the secretary of state. He has extensive experience in government and industry and a public policy background that includes close ties to academia. Since 1996 Dr. Neureiter has served as U.S. cochair of the U.S.-Japan Joint High Level Advisory Committee and as a U.S. commissioner of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Joint Fund II, which supports cooperative science and technology research between U.S. and Polish scientists and engineers. From 1973 to 1996 Dr. Neureiter held a variety of positions at Texas Instruments (TI), including director of East-West business development, manager of international business development, vice president for corporate staff, director of TI Japan, and vice president of TI Asia. Prior to his work at Texas Instruments, Dr. Neureiter worked as international affairs assistant in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, served as deputy science attaché in the U.S. Embassy in Bonn, and was the first U.S. science attaché in Eastern Europe, based at the U.S. Embassy in Poland. Dr. Neureiter received a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Rochester and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Northwestern University.
LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, a nationally recognized authority on engineering, science, and technology, is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and serves on committees, panels, and task forces for numerous organizations, including the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Nuclear Society, and the Electric Power Research Institute. He is a registered professional nuclear engineer in California. Dr. Papay recently joined Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) as sector vice president, where he is responsible for integrating technology and energy, environment, and information systems for governmental and commercial clients worldwide. Prior to joining SAIC, Dr. Papay was senior vice president and general manager of Bechtel Technology and Consulting, where he was responsible for monitoring new technologies and developing new businesses. His prior experience includes more than 20 years at Southern California Edison. Dr. Papay received a B.S. in physics from Fordham University and an M.S. and Sc.D. in nuclear engineering from MIT.
GEETA PRADHAN is director of the New Economy Initiative at the Boston Foundations, a former consultant in the field of sustainable community development and planning, and former director of Sustainable Boston, a city of Boston initiative. She is coauthor of the report, The Wisdom of Our Choices: Boston’s Indicators of Progress, Change, and Sustainability (The Boston Foundation,
2000), serves on the boards of several nonprofit organizations in the United States, and is a trustee of the Social Enterprise Education Trust in India. Dr. Pradhan received her graduate degree in urban design from Harvard University and was a recipient of the 1999 Women Waging Peace Award, an international fellowship program at Harvard. She also received the 1999 Urban Edge Community Service Award in Boston and an Environmental Leadership Award in 1998 from the Environmental Protection Agency New England Region.
RAJESH K. PRADHAN works as a consultant in the fields of urban planning, social entrepreneurship, and urban governance. He has also worked at the Harvard Institute for International Development on strengthening the capacity of public and private institutions and nongovernmental organizations in small enterprise programs in developing countries. Mr. Pradhan received dual graduate degrees in urban studies and city planning and architecture studies from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and did his doctoral work in political science (dissertation pending) also at MIT. He is the author of journal articles on small enterprises and the informal sector in developing countries and has published poems online on philosophical themes. He founded and heads the Social Enterprise Education Trust in India, an institution committed to promoting education, research, and activism in social entrepreneurship as a way of improving urban governance, urban environment, and livelihood and employment opportunities in urban areas.
DANIEL R. SAREWITZ is a senior research scholar and the managing director of Columbia University’s Center for Science, Policy, and Outcomes. His work focuses on strengthening the connections between scientific research and social benefits. He is the coeditor of Prediction: Science, Decision-Making, and the Future of Nature (Island Press, 2000) and the author of Frontiers of Illusion: Science, Technology, and the Politics of Progress (Temple University Press, 1996). His written work also includes an article in the Atlantic Monthly (July 2000) on global climate change. Dr. Sarewitz was formerly director of the Geological Society of America’s Institute for Environmental Education. He also served as science consultant to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and principal speech writer for Committee Chair George E. Brown, Jr. Before moving into the policy arena, he was a research associate and lecturer in the Department of Geological Sciences at Cornell University. He received his Ph.D. in geological sciences from Cornell University in 1986.
MAXINE F. SINGER is president of the Carnegie Institution and scientist emeritus at the National Cancer Institute’s Laboratory of Biochemistry, where she was chief from 1980 to 1987. Dr. Singer received her A.B. from Swarthmore College and her Ph.D. in biochemistry from Yale University. Her research contributions
have ranged over several areas of biochemistry and molecular biology, including human transposable elements, the structure and evolution of defective viruses, and enzymes that work on DNA and its complementary molecule RNA. Throughout her career Dr. Singer has taken a leading role in refining the nation’s science policy. She was an organizer of the 1975 Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA research and one of five signers of the summary statement that drew up guidelines for that research. Dr. Singer is a member of the Human Genome Organization and serves on the board of directors for Johnson & Johnson. She is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and has received honorary degrees from Dartmouth, New York University, Swarthmore, Harvard, Yale, and numerous other institutions. In 1998 Dr. Singer was awarded the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award and in 1992 the National Medal of Science, the nation’s highest scientific honor, “for her outstanding scientific accomplishments and her deep concern for the societal responsibility of the scientist.”
KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR is director of the Materials and Processes Laboratory of the General Motors Research and Development and Planning Center, where she manages research and development in materials science and oversees the research of 105 engineers and scientists on lightweight bodies and power trains, engineered and advanced functional materials, and materials integration. Dr. Taylor is concurrently chief scientist for General Motors of Canada, Ltd. She was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1995, is a member of the American Chemical Society and the Materials Research Society, and is a fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
ROBERT M. WHITE was president of the National Academy of Engineering from 1983 until his retirement in June 1995. Currently, Dr. White is a principal of the Washington Advisory Group, LLC, a science, technology, and education consulting firm. He is also a senior fellow at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. He served under five U.S. presidents from 1963 to 1977, first as chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau and finally as the first administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In these capacities, he is credited with bringing about a revolution in the U.S. weather warning system with satellite and computer technology, helping to initiate new approaches to the balanced management of the country’s coastal zones, and strengthening American fisheries. As U.S. representative to the World Meteorological Organization from 1963 to 1978, he helped establish the World Weather Watch for the continuous monitoring of the Earth’s atmosphere, the Global Weather Experiment to extend the time range of weather forecasts, and the World Climate Program to improve our understanding of climate change. Dr. White holds a B.A. in geology from Harvard University and an M.S. and Sc.D. in meteorology from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. He holds honorary degrees from many universities and is a member of the Academies of Engineering of the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Russia, and Finland, as well as the French Legion of Honor. His many awards include the Vannevar Bush Award of the National Science Board, the Tyler Prize for environmental achievement, the Charles E. Lindbergh Award for technology and environment, the Rockefeller Public Service Award for Protection of Natural Resources, the Smithsonian Institution’s Matthew Fontaine Maury Award for Contributions to Undersea Exploration, the International Conservation Award of the National Wildlife Federation, and the International Meteorological Organization Prize of the World Meteorological Organization.