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Appendix A: Present Organizational Structure A.1 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is organizationally structured into four programmatic Divisions: the National Mapping Division, Geologic Division, Water Resources Division, and Conservation Division; two program-support Divisions: the Administrative Division and Computer Center Division; and two programmatic offices under the Office of the Director: the Office of Na- tural Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and the Office of Earth Science Applica- tions. The National Mapping Division was organized during fiscal year 1980 to consolidate mapping, charting, geodesy, and surveying programs and activi- ties of the Geological Survey from the former Topographic Division, the former Publications Division, and the former Geography Program (of the Office of Earth Science Applications). In support of the USGS mission to provide information about the earth and its physical resources, the National Mapping Division provides geographic and cartographic information, maps, and technical assistance and conducts related research responsive to national needs. To accomplish this mission, the Division collects, compiles, and analyzes information about natural and man-made features on the earth's surface and documents changes as appropriate; produces and maintains series of accurate and up-to-date general-purpose base maps and thematic maps such as land-use/land-cover maps; develops and maintains a digital geographic-car- tographic data base for multipurpose needs and assists Survey divisions and other federal and state agencies in developing and applying spatial data; 54
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56 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW TABLE A.1 National Mapping Division Budget Figures for Fiscal Year 1980 Funding Program Element Positions ($ Thousands) Primary quadrangle mapping and modernization 1092 Map revision and orthophotoquads 375 Digital mapping 32 Small-scale, intermediate-scale, and special mappmg Cartographic and geographic information and data services 26 185 38,341 14,288 2,627 14,453 3,058 TOTALSa 1710 72,767 aThese figures do not include positions and funding associated with the former Publica- tions Division. conducts geographic, cartographic, and reproduction research utilizing mod- ern technology and equipment; provides thematic mapping support to Survey divisions and other federal agencies; prints topographic, geologic, hydrologic, land-use, and other thematic maps; and operates information and technical assistance centers that gather, index, analyze, and catalog geographic and cartographic information. The Division also makes available maps, imagery, spatial data, and related information; provides assistance in selecting, acquir- ing, and using geographic and cartographic products; and designs, prints, and distributes maps of the National Atlas. It coordinates federal mapping activi- ties and provides leadership in the development and advancement of suney- ing and mapping technology. Table A.1 gives fiscal year 1980 budget figures for personnel and funding for the National Mapping Division. A.2 NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is managed from a structure that comprises five main-line components including the Of- fice of Oceanic and Atmospheric Services. The Office of National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is one of five basic functional offices of the National Ocean Survey (NOS) within the structure of Oceanic and Atmospheric Services. The NOS program activities and responsibilities comprise mapping, chart- ing, and surveying services and operations of the NOAA fleet and ship bases.
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58 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW TABLE A.2 Nation Ocean Survey Budget Figures for Fiscal Year 1980 . Funding Office Positions ($ Thousands) Geodetic Surveys and Services 339 13,236 Nauticad Charting Services 404 15,695 Ocean and Coastal Mapping 220 10,468 Aeronautical Chart Services 464 21,577 Fleet Operationsa 887 42,951 TOTALS 2314 $103,927 aIncludes support for all NOAA components; in particular, National Ocean Survey, Environmental Researc1' Laboratories, National Fisheries Service, and National Weather Service. These program activities are responsive to NOAA missions, which include providing for the following: 1. Charts and related information for safe navigation of marine and air commerce; 2. Ocean and coastal surveys and maps; 3. Marine resource assessment, monitoring, and prediction; 4. Marine ecosystem investigations, analysis, and ocean dumping; 5. Ocean and coastal management, conservation, and protection; 6. Geodetic surveys and services; 7. Public forecast and warning services; and 8. Supporting research, development, and engineering. The NOS program response to the NOAA mission is funded and managed under (1) Geodetic Surveys and Services, (2) Nautical Charting Services, (3) Ocean and Coastal Mapping, (4) Aeronautical Charting Services, and (5) Fleet Operations, as shown in Table A.2. Table A.2 gives the fiscal year 1980 budget figures for personnel and fund- ing for the National Ocean Survey. A.3 BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT The cadastral survey organization of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is responsible for the legal boundary surveys required by the federal govern- ment. There are three general classifications of surveys conducted by the BEM: (1) the initial surveys of the federal public lands to create boundaries that may be used for the management and sale of public lands, including the 1
Bureau of Land Management Division of Cadastral Survey Di rector BLM Services Denver Service Center l l Cadastral l Technical Science & Survey Technical Services Technology Examination & Services ~ Approval ~ Cadastral Survey and Cadastral Cadastral Survey Mapping Survey Survey Mapping & | Training l 1 1 1 State District Directors Offices Engineering Project Office Field Survey Photogrammetry Denver Center Cartography Portland Center 1 1 ' 1 Field Office Cadastral Survey 59 11, Field Office
60 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); (2) the maintenance of the Public Land Sur- vey System (PUSS), with resurveys and remonumentation of the original sur- veys; and (3) the boundary surveys required by the BLM and other federal agencies to delineate management tracts within the public lands or between federal and nonfederal lands (administrative surveys). The Cadastral Survey organization is divided into three general groups: 1. Division of Cadastral Survey in Washington, D.C., including the Division Chief and a small staff that reports through channels to the Director of BEM and is responsible for program development, technical development, public liaison, and technical guidance. 2. State offices (12) that report through channels to the State Director and are responsible for the Cadastral surveys within their area, including origi- nal surveys, resurveys, and some reimbursable surveys for other agencies. Each state office develops its program, conducts the field surveys, and proc- esses the information in accordance with prescribed standards and policies. The state office is usually responsible for the preparation, filing, and main- tenance of the official Cadastral records within its area. 3. Service Center Offices in Denver, Colorado, and Portland, Oregon, that report through channels to the Director of the Denver Service Center and are responsible primarily for the Cadastral surveys required by other federal agen- cies. The program management responsibilities are similar to the state organi- zations. In addition to the surveys described above, the Denver Service Center reviews and approves the survey plats, prepares the ocs protraction diagrams, and conducts personnel training and development programs. During 1980 the Cadastral survey organization had 373 permanent posi- tions (Division of Cadastral Survey, 12; State Offices, 253; and Service Cen- ter, 108), and expenditures totaled $17.8 million. A.4 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION As provided for in the National Space Act of 1958, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to conduct scientific research in space for the benefit of mankind. Studies of the earth from space and of the earth as a planet are within the purview of the responsibilities as- signed by the Act. In fulfillment of these responsibilities and to support other efforts having need of geodetic information, such as satellite orbit computa- tion, NASA has pursued an active research program in the development and application of space techniques for the accomplishment of geodetic measure- ments.
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62 FEDERAL SURVEYING AND MAPPING: ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW NASA is administered from a structure that comprises six program offices, which, supported by the various staff offices, manage the activities of eleven field installations. All geodetic, geodynamic, and earth-related geophysical research activities are managed through the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA). OSTA is supported by the Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems for data acquisition and initial processing, by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology for common Supporting Research and Technology, by the Office of Space Science for Spacelab-associated missions, and by the Office of Space Transportation Operations for Shuttle-associated missions. In August 1962, in viewofNASA'sresponsibilitiesforinternationalcoop- eration in the field of space sciences, Congress directed the Agency to imple- ment a National Geodetic Satellite Program to meet the needs of all inter- ested parties, scientific and military. This program was initially coordinated by the Geodetic Satellite Policy Board chaired by NASA with members from the Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- tration and the Department of Defense/Defense Mapping Agency. In 1978, it was reconstituted as the Satellite Geodesy Applications Board (SCAB) with the same mission and participants. Within OSTA, the Resource Observation Division has primary responsi- bility for the conduct of the geodetic, geodynamic, and solid-earth geophysics programs. The three branches (Geodynamics, Renewable Resources, and Non- Renewable Resources) work closely in developing spaceborne and ground- based sensors for measuring and monitoring the earth's magnetic and geo- potential fields, as well as small-scale motions (centimeters/year displacement and deformation) of the global tectonic plates. Coordination is also effected with the Oceanic Processes Branch of the Environmental Observations Divi- sion on research related to the earth geoid and geopotential model as affected by ocean circulation. In addition to the SCAB coordination, NASA has initiated extensive inter- agency and international coordination of its space-related crustal dynamics and gravity field measurement programs. Funding for geodetic-related space activities in fiscal year 1981 is approxi- mately $90 million; the staff comprises approximately 50 civil servants. A.S DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) is responsible for providing mapping, charting, and geodetic (MC&G) support to the Department of Defense. In ad- dition, the DMA has statutory responsibility for providing nautical charts and marine navigation data for the use of all vessels of the United States and of navigators generally. ; . ;
Appendix A TABLE A.3 The Defense Mappmg Agency Budget Figures for Fiscal Year 1980 63 Funding Component Positions ($ Thousands) HQ DMA 189 $ 29,862a Aerospace Center 3655 121,434 Hydrographic/Topographic Center 3828 128,566 Office of Distribution Services 452 14,630 Inter-Amencan Geodetic Survey 163 7,303 Defense Mapping School 196 2,697 TOTAL 8483 $304,492 aIncludes $20,012 in research and development funds to support all DMA activities. The DMA was created in 1972, as the result of a Presidential decision, to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness through consolidation of the MC&G elements then assigned to the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Hydro- graphic surveys remained with Navy and topographic troop units with the Amity and the Marines, but these activities are under DMA program manage- ment. The DMA is organized into a Headquarters and five Components: the Aerospace and Hydrographic/Topographic Centers carry out the production mission; the Office of Distribution Services stores and distributes all DMA maps and charts; the Inter-American Geodetic Survey provides technical sup- port to cooperating Latin American countries as a means of meeting U.S. na- tional security needs; and the Defense Mapping School trains military person- nel in MC&G subjects. DMA personnel are assigned at a total of 59 locations worldwide. The fiscal year 1980 personnel and funding levels are given in Table A.3. Defense Mapping Agency Headquarters Aerospace Hydrographic/ Distribution Inter Defense Center Topographic Services American Mapping Center Geodetic Survey School ' ,