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103 Once the equitable share responsibility and equitable cost V = Permissible peak-hour vehicular trips (total to and has been established on a per trip basis, these values can be from lot). utilized for all projects on that state highway facility until the forecasted general plan build-out model is revised. If the per L = Left distance between the lot centerline and the cen- trip cost is not used for all subsequent projects, then Equa- terline of the next adjacent non single-family residential lot tion 3 is used to determine the costs for individual project (Lmax = S). impact and will require some additional accounting. R = Right distance measured similar to "L" above (Rmax Equation 3: Proportionality = S). C = P(CT Cc) (3) S = Spacing distance, based on posted speed. Where: A = Area of the lot expressed in acres (for urban areas: Amax = 3.0 acres, and for rural areas: Amax = 2.0 acres). C = Same as Equation 2. Based on Equations 4 and 5, the number of permissible P = Same as Equation 2. peak-hour vehicular trips for lots in urban areas ranges from a minimum of 50 trips to a maximum of 350 trips. For rural CT = Same as Equation 2. areas, the number of permissible trips ranges from a minimum of 50 trips to a maximum of 190 trips. These peak-hour trip CC = The combined dollar contributions paid and com- limits apply only to properties seeking access to the New Jer- mitted before the current project's contribution. This is nec- sey state highway system that cannot meet the required spac- essary to provide the appropriate cost proportionality. ing identified in the Highway Access Management Code. Example: For the first project to affect the state highway facility in question, CC would be equal to zero. For the second Transit-Related Trip-Generation Credits In project, however, C would equal P2(CT C1), and for the third The New Jersey Access Code project, C would equal P3[CT (C1 + C2)], and so on until build-out or the general plan build-out was recalculated. In 2004, the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) initiated the New Jersey Access Code Reevaluation Study (ACRS) to assess the relationship between the New Jer- New Jersey DepArtment Of Transportation's sey State Development and Redevelopment Plan (SDRP) and Vehicle-Use Limitations For Nonconforming the State Highway Access Management Code to recommend Lots modifications to the code that would strengthen implemen- tation of SDRP policies and the governor's executive orders In New Jersey, permit applicants seeking access to a state on smart growth (90). The ACRS examined a wide range of highway are subject to the driveway spacing requirements issues arising from the state's second SDRP adoption in March set forth the State Highway Access Management Code (89). 2001, and recommended a variety of modifications to the A property that does not conform to the required access code to facilitate implementation of smart growth principles spacing as defined in the code is referred to as a "noncon- and the SDRP. Outcomes of the study included the enhance- forming lot" and is subject to vehicle-use limitations (i.e., ment of existing intradepartmental procedures and programs a maximum allowable trip-generation limit). The formulas designed to ensure that the code and its outcomes are consis- to calculate the vehicle-use limits for lots in urban and rural tent with the principles of smart growth, and improvement of areas are as follows: code provisions to better assist counties, municipalities, and private developers with achieving smart growth objectives. For urban areas: As part of the ACRS, a methodology was developed by the (LR)2 V 50 A 100 (4) project team to estimate appropriate transit-related trip-gen- (2S)2 eration credits for use in traffic impact studies for medium- For rural areas: to large-size residential, office, and industrial developments that are expected to benefit from a proximity to bus and rail (LR)2 V 50 A 70 (5) transportation. This action is envisioned to promote devel- (2S)2 opment in and around rail stations and major bus stops, and Where: is consistent with the New Jersey State Long-Range Trans- portation Plan (SLRTP), which calls for the following:
104 Promoting transit-oriented development and · LOW--0 to 0.5 Transit Score redevelopment at rail stations and bus stops with · MARGINAL--0.5 to 1.0 Transit Score significant levels of transit service. Advancing the Transit Village Initiative and Transit Friendly Land Use · MEDIUM--1.0 to 3.0 Transit Score Initiative; stressing the need for affordable housing and · MEDIUM-HIGH--3.0 to 9.0 Transit Score job opportunities in these locations. · HIGH-->9.0 Transit Score In New Jersey, a TIS is required for all "Major with Plan- NJDOT has indicated that a transit trip credit could be ning" access permit applications (i.e., applications for a taken provided that the following four transit service criteria development action projected to generate 500 or more vehi- are met: cle trips per day, and 200 or more peak-hour vehicle trips). As part of the TIS, the number of vehicle trips expected to 1. The proposed land use is residential, office, or indus- be generated by the proposed development is estimated by trial (no credit is allowed for retail developments the applicant's traffic engineer, often using data from the under this methodology). ITE standard reference manual, Trip Generation (91). In highly developed areas of New Jersey, where frequent tran- 2. The site is located in an area with a numerical Transit sit service is accessible, a significant number of trips to and Score corresponding to the following ranges: from a particular site could occur via transit. The study sites MEDIUM-HIGH or HIGH (3.0) for residential reflected in the ITE data, however, typically consist of sub- developments, or urban, auto-oriented land uses where a negligible portion of HIGH (9.0) for office and industrial the vehicle trips occur via transit. developments. Although the New Jersey Access Code allows applicants 3. Transit service is frequent (headways 30 min) dur- to estimate trip-generation credits for trips made via transit, ing the weekday morning and afternoon peak hours. data to support such credits are limited and no formal calcu- lation methodology is available to determine the magnitude 4. The occupied area of the site is pedestrian accessible of the credit. NJDOT recognized the need for a more reli- within a reasonable walking distance from transit able estimate of transit usage in the TIS process. Therefore, service that operates during the weekday morning in conjunction with New Jersey TRANSIT, a methodology and afternoon peak periods, where: was developed to identify whether or not a transit-trip credit a. Pedestrian-accessible: on-site and off-site sidewalk could be taken in the TIS for a "Major with Planning" appli- and crosswalk connections to transit exist or are cation, as well as the magnitude of any such credit. proposed by the developer in conjunction with the proposed development. The methodology utilizes a numerical demographic b.Reasonable walking distance: 0.25 mi for bus and index developed by New Jersey TRANSIT called the "Tran- 0.5 mi for rail. sit Score," which reflects a given area's propensity for transit usage. The Transit Score is based on the composite average Provided that the proposed development meets the four of four factors that influence the potential for transit rider- factors, a transit-trip credit can be taken. New Jersey TRAN- ship and is estimated for each of the 1,950 census tracts in SIT developed transit-trip reduction factors at the census New Jersey. The four factors that are included in the Transit tract level and summarized them in reference tables that Score are as follows: identify the magnitude of the credits for qualifying census tracts. · Household Density · Population Density As a hypothetical example, the weekday afternoon peak- · Employment Density hour trip-generation credit for a proposed 200-unit apart- · Zero and One-Car Household Density ment development located on a site in census tract 000100 in Atlantic City that meets the four transit service criteria (i.e., An increase in any of these four factors results in an the site is pedestrian-accessible and located within a reason- increase in the numerical value of the Transit Score. able walking distance of frequent transit service) would be computed as follows: All Transit Scores are classified into one of five categories. These five categories represent ranges based on observed Weekday afternoon peak-hour land use characteristics and actual transit service patterns. trip-generation rate (as per ITE) = 0.62 trips/unit Following are the five Transit Score categories and the cor- Number of apartments = 200 units responding range of numerical values for each: Weekday afternoon peak-hour trips (before transit adjustment) = 124 trips
105 Allowable transit-trip reduction credit This process is based on existing transit service being (from reference table) = 0.14 (14%) available. For locations for which future transit service is Reduction in afternoon vehicle trips proposed, the determination about whether or not a transit- associated with transit credit = -17 trips trip credit is applicable, and the magnitude of that credit, Weekday afternoon peak-hour trips is determined in cooperation with NJDOT and New Jersey (after transit adjustment) = 107 trips TRANSIT. NJDOT is considering the proposed methodol- ogy for inclusion in its Access Code.