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MINDING THE HELM Marine Navigation and Piloting Committee on Advances in Navigation and Piloting Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
NATIONAL 'ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Scienc- es, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of' Medicine. The program described in this report is supported by Cooperative Agreement No. 14-35-0001- 30475 between the Minerals Management Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Advances in Navigation and Piloting. Minding the helm: marine navigation and piloting / Committee on Advances in Navigation and Piloting, Marine Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04829-X 1. Navigation-United States. 2. Navigation-United. States Safety measures. 3. Pilots and pilotage United States. I. Title. VK555.N325 1994 363.12'35'0973 dc20 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. B-487 94-28864 CIP Cover photo: Tanker westbound in New York's East River approaching the Manhattan Bridge. From the perspective of an individual on the ship's bridge, the vessel "fills" the channel. Visibility looking forward is generally good from a tanker with a superstructure aft, except for the water area ahead of the bow. (USCG Vessel Traf&c Service New York). Printed in the United States o,' America
COMMITTEE ON ADVANCES IN NAVIGATIO1S AND PILOTING ALBERT J. HERBERGER, Chair (until September 14, 1993), International panning and Analysis Center, Arlington, Virginia MARTHA GRABOWSKI, Chair (from September 17, 1993), LeMoyne College, Syracuse, New York, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York BERNHARD J. ABRAHAMSSON, University of Wiscor~sin-Superior, Superior JAMES E. BAKER, Port of Houston Authority (retired), Houston, Texas RONALD BRAFF, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia ROBERT M. FREEMAN, SeaRiver Maritime, Houston, Texas JEAN GRAFF, Port Revel Center, St. Pierre de Bressieux, France PAUL LANE IVES, JR., The Pilots Association for the Bay and River Delaware, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WALTER PARKER, Parker Associates, Anchorage, Alaska KARLENE H. ROBERTS, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley WILLIAM SCHRENK, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York City, New York FRANK SEITZ, SIMSHIP Corporation, North Port, New York EUGENE F. SWEENEY, Hvide Shipping, Fort Lauderdale, Florida ARTHUR J. THOMAS, San Francisco Bar Pilots, San Francisco, California Liaison Representatives JOHN ALBRIGHT, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (until September 30, 1992) GEORGE LEIGH, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (from October 1, 1992) JOHN J. DUMBLETON, Maritime Administration FREDERICK J. GRADY, III, U.S. Coast Guard (until June 30, 1992) JOHN F. McGOWAN, U.S. Coast Guard (from August 1, 1992) EDWARD J. LaRUE, U.S. Coast Guard HAROLD C. TOHLEN, JR.' U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (until August 30, 1992) MICHAEL F. KIDBY, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (from September 1, 1992) Staff WAYNE YOUNG, Project Officer LAURA OST, Editorial Consultant GLORIA GREEN, Project Assistant (until March 31, 1993) PAUL FIELDS, Project Assistant (from April 1, 1993) . . .
MARINE BOARD RICHARD J. SEYMOUR, Chair, Texas A&M University and Scripps Institute of Oceanography JERRY A. ASPLAND, Arco Marine, Inc. ANNE AYLWARD, National Commission on Intermodal Transportation ROBERT G. BEA, NAE, University of California, Berkeley MARK Y. BERMAN, Amoco Production Company BROCK B. BERNSTEIN, EcoAnalysis JOHN W. BOYLSTON, Argent Marine Operations, Inc. SARAH CHASIS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. CHRYSSOSTOMOS CHRYSSOSTOMIDIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JAMES M. COLEMAN, NAE, Louisiana State University EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, NAS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography MARTHA GRABOWSKI, LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ASHISH J. MEHTA, University of Florida M. ELISABETH PAT12-CORNELL, Stanford University DONALD W. PRITCHARD, NAE, State University of New York at Stony Brook STEPHANIE R. THORNTON, Coastal Resources Center ROD VULOVIC, Sea-Land Service, Inc. ALAN G. YOUNG, Fugro-McClelland BV Staff CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director DONALD W. PERKINS, Associate Director DORIS C. HOLMES, Staff Associate - IV
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of out- standing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate profes- sions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineer- ing communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. v
Acknowledgments The committee gratefully acknowledges the contributions of time and infor- mation provided by liaison representatives, their agencies, and the many individ- uals within and outside government who are interested in the role of marine navigation and piloting and the improvement of marine safety and who support- ed this assessment. Frederick J. Grady, III, and John F. McGowan, both from the U.S. Coast Guard, provided technical support and reference materials for the federal pilot system. Edward LaRue, U.S. Coast Guard; John J. Dumbleton, Maritime Administration; and John Albright and George Leigh, National Ocean- ographic and Atmospheric Administration, provided valuable insight on naviga- tion technology applications, policy, and research. Michael F. Kidby and Harold Tohlen, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, provided advice on waterway design and maintenance. Wayne Young, Marine Board, helped develop marine traffic regulation sections of the report. The committee is especially indebted to the many marine pilots, docking masters, representatives of the shipping and towing industries, and state and federal pilotage authorities who provided detailed descriptions of pilotage routes, practices, and administration and of pilot development programs. Special thanks are extended to the many members of the European maritime community who provided advice during a visit to European sites by a delegation from the com- mittee. Special acknowledgement of those who met with the committee in the United States, Canada, and Europe is included as Appendix B. The committee is also especially indebted to W. Ph. van Maanen, formerly with the Rotterdam Port Authority, who assisted in organizing and moderating substantial presentations and discussions of marine navigation and piloting is . . V11
. . . V111 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS sues in the Netherlands and who provided reference materials on the use of marine simulation for waterways design and professional development; James Lindahl, SILJA Line Ferries, who graciously arranged for members of the dele- gation to observe the operation of integrated bridge systems on the Stockholm- Turku and Stockholm-Helsinki routes; S. N. Zuurbier, Reg. Loodsencorporatie Rotterdam-Rijnmond, who provided detailed insight on pilotage serving the Port of Rotterdam and arranged and coordinated a visit to the Rotterdam Pilots' North Sea station boats to observe pilot boarding operations; Robert Hofstee, Rotter- dam Pilots, who arranged for a committee member to participate in pilot board- ing by helicopter and to observe the piloting of a very large crude carrier; and the American President Lines, Washington State Ferries, and San Francisco Bar Pilots for arranging and coordinating committee member trips aboard vessels to observe onboard navigation and piloting practice. The committee acknowledges and expresses its gratitude for the special technical support provided by lain M. H. Slater, Thames Navigation Service; John Hartke, U.S. Coast Guard; Warren Schneeweis, U.S. Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service New York; Spencer Martin, Canadian Coast Guard, Ottawa; John MacLeod, Canadian Coast Guard Traffic Centre Vancouver; Paul Kirschner, American Pilots' Association; William A. Arata, Biscayne Bay Pilots; and Ed- ward T. Gates,- Arceneaux and Gates. The committee also greatly appreciates the encouragement and support of Pat Neely, American Pilots' Association (retired); George Quick, International Organization of Masters, Mates, and Pilots; Thomas Allegretti, The American Waterways Operators; and Joseph Cox, American In- stitute of Merchant Shipping. Thanks also are extended to the many participants in the committee's meet- ings and to the leaders and staffs of the pilot stations, VTS systems, and marine training facilities that hosted visits by the committee. The extraordinary cooper- ation and interest in the committee's work from so many knowledgeable individ- uals were both gratifying and essential.
Preface BACKGROUND The safety of vessel navigation and piloting practices have been called to national attention by recent, well-publicized shipping disasters in which naviga- tion and piloting have been contributing factors. Shiphandling, positioning, work practices, and communications in piloting waters have been identified as key causal factors in these accidents, calling into question the professional qualifica- tions of merchant mariners and marine pilots and the effectiveness of marine navigation technology, shipboard navigation and piloting, and safety oversight. Also questioned are the programs and policies that led to current equipment requirements, skill development programs, licensing regimes, and manning and pilotage laws. Safety concerns are accentuated by the large size of modern ships and barg- es transporting petroleum or other hazardous or dangerous cargoes. Cargo vol- ume has increased the scale of the hazards to life, property, and the environment that could result from just one catastrophic marine transportation accident. How- ever, these concerns must be considered in relation to the complex factors affect- ing marine transportation and the considerable reliance on efficient and cost- effective marine transportation for domestic and foreign trade. They also must be seen against the backdrop of the economic conditions that threaten the exist- ence of the U.S. merchant fleet. Improvements to the marine navigation and piloting system too often are considered individually rather than collectively. Even when a broad range of options is considered, actual implementation is often fragmented and uncoordinated because of a patchwork of jurisdictions and no clear mechanism for balancing safety and economic objectives. IX
x PREFACE The Congress, in the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, reacted to deficiencies it perceived in the marine navigation and piloting system by requiring such mea- sures as mandatory state pilotage and use of automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) systems in Prince William Sound and examination of shiphandling simu- lation as a means to improve the training of deck officers serving aboard tank ships. Also receiving congressional attention are advanced electronic navigation systems and application of aviation-like traffic control technology and proce- dures to U.S. ports and waterways. The National Transportation Safety Board continually has called for revision of federal pilotage laws to place all pilots under Coast Guard discipline, a move opposed by the states and state-licensed pilots. At the same time, the federal government and several states have enacted laws greatly increasing the economic cost to polluters for oil pollution incidents. Other states are considering extending state pilotage requirements to regulate the services of docking and mooring masters who hold, but do not operate under the authority of, federal pilot's licenses and endorsements. The development of a suitable program to improve safety, which includes the application of advanced technologies, is complicated by a lack of cohesion and wide variations within the marine navigation and piloting system. These variations occur in terms of port, waterway, and river operating environments; vessel types, equipment, operating characteristics, loading, and manning; and professional qualifications. Interactions among these various factors result in safety problems that defy a simple solution. Pinpointing opportunities for im- proving safety requires careful consideration of risk, navigation and piloting practices, navigation technology, human systems, and public policy, as well as of the difficulty of proving the value and reliability of innovative practices and technologies in practical application. The system needs to be examined holisti- cally, because a change in any aspect training, manning, marine pilotage, sys- tems maintenance, port and waterway operating environments, economics, gov- ernment policies, and traditional approaches to navigation and.change-affects the performance of the entire marine navigation and piloting system and the value of innovative solutions and technologies to improve safety. Proposed solu- tions must also guard against constraining development of other alternatives that may yield equivalent or greater value. Against this backdrop of confounding factors and continuing public concern and controversy, the Coast Guard determined the need for an independent as- sessment. The Coast Guard requested that the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences conduct a comprehensive assessment of the state of practice of ship navigation and piloting and develop recommendations to improve it. In requesting the study, the agency indicated that the examination should address waterways management; marine pilotage, including the interac- tion of oceangoing ships with other commercial traffic in the nation's ports and waterways; and application of navigation technologies. The Coast Guard intends to use the technical information, analysis, and recommendations in its decision
PREFACE Xl making concerning specific programs and regulations for administering marine safety and environmental protection responsibilities within the Coast Guard's domain. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STUDY The National Research Council convened the Committee on Advances in Navigation and Piloting under the auspices of the Marine Board of the Commis- sion on Engineering and Technical Systems. Committee members were selected for their expertise and to ensure a wide range of experience and viewpoints. The principle guiding the constitution of the committee and its work, consistent with the policy of the National Research Council, was not to exclude members with potential biases that might accompany expertise vital to the study but to seek balance and fair treatment. Committee members were selected for their expertise in naval science, marine pilotage, navigation technology, aviation systems, hu- man systems, professional training and simulation, waterways management, and environmental safety and law. Academic, industrial, government, scientific, and engineering perspectives also were reflected in the committee's composition. Biographies of committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee was assisted by the U.S. Coast Guard, Maritime Administra- tion, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad~in.istration, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, all of which designated liaison representatives. SCOPE OF STUDY The committee was asked to (1) conduct a multidisciplinary assessment of the state of practice of ship navigation and piloting in the United States, with emphasis on navigation while entering and leaving ports; (2) identify advances in public policies, planning guidance, operational procedures, standards, train- ing, and innovative technologies that have potential to improve safety and over- all effectiveness of the marine navigation and piloting system; and (3) to make recommendations on research and development and on the role of government at all. levels in advancing innovative applications of technology to improve ship navigation and piloting. The committee was to examine how changes in vessel systems, waterway systems, and human performance affect the basic navigation and piloting requirements in the port and on the vessel; to establish an improved technical basis for rnanagirlg change in a competitive environment; and to im- prove navigation safety. Included in the scope of study were · the changing character of vessel traffic (vessel types, vessel sizes, traffic density, port configuration and operation); · the changing state of practice of vessel. navigation and piloting, including technology advances and their implications;
. . X11 PREFACE · the changing roles of the vessel's master, officers, and crew (bridge com- plement); marine pilots; and shore-based traffic safety personnel; · the effect of changes in technology on training, licensing, and perfor mance; · how changes in technology affect administration of marine navigation and piloting; and · the government role in oversight and operation of the marine navigation and piloting system. Although jurisdiction over pilotage was recognized as an important aspect of marine navigation and piloting, the assessment initially sought to focus on technical issues to provide a sound foundation for decision making affecting the oversight and operation of the marine navigation and piloting system. It soon became apparent that the technical issues, including those pertaining to stan- dards, training, licensing, pilot performance, and the application of advanced technology in piloting, were inexorably intertwined with pilotage administration and issues of governance. The committee determined that full assessment of administrative and technical issues was essential to fulfilling its charter and that these issues needed to be addressed in its conclusions and recommendations. The committee updated the study terms of reference to reflect this approach. Pilotage for coastal towing industry vessels is an element of federal pilotage regulation and within the scope of study. The piloting of inland towing industry vessels is an ancillary area of interest insofar as these vessels interact with ocean- going vessels in coastal ports, connecting waters, and river systems. Marine traffic regulation, including vessel traffic services (VTS) as they interact with marine traffic and vessel operators, is a major issue and a central feature of the assessment. Also included in the scope of study are risk-assessment factors un- derlying marine traffic safety and system performance, relevant lessons learned from prior examinations of the Great Lakes Pilotage System, economic and op- erating trends in marine transportation, and issues that might affect implementa- tion of options to improve the state of practice of navigation and piloting. Although tankers form a small portion of the world's merchant fleets, tanker operations are perceived by the public as the major marine transportation prob- lem. Because of public interest in the causes, consequences, and implications of marine accidents that result in major pollution incidents, these marine accidents are usually far better documented and provide a more complete basis for deter- mining what went wrong in the specific case and insight, if not complete an- swers, on systemic problems. Although these events constituted a major source of documentation, the navigation and piloting of the full range of merchant ves- sels is covered in order to assess systemic problems and options for improving the state of practice. Excluded from the scope of study are navigation and piloting on the Great Lakes, navigation and piloting in inland navigation systems that do not support
PREFACE . . . Xlll ship navigation, the navigation and piloting of naval vessels and Coast Guard cutters, the operation of recreational vessels in the vicinity of commercial traffic, and pilotage rate structures. However, pilotage administration for the Great Lakes, a Coast Guard responsibility, is addressed as an analogous system. Com- prehensive assessment of implementation regimes for improvement options was also outside the scope of study. The committee reviewed available data and literature and visited selected sites in North America and Europe to meet with local, regional, national, and international interests and to acquire firsthand insight. The committee also solic- ited data and views from marine pilots and docking masters; shipping and tow- ing industry representatives; officials in local, state, and federal agencies and boards and commissions; waterways managers and vessel traffic regulators; pub- lic interest groups; and experts in maritime and pilotage law. A detailed trip report documents findings of the committee's delegation that visited European sites. A comprehensive background paper on VTS systems was prepared and used as the basis for the committee's assessment of marine traffic regulation. An extensive reference list was developed to facilitate identification and practical use of these materials. REPORT ORGANIZATION This report was prepared for an audience of state and federal government decision makers; marine licensing authorities; program administrators for navi- gation, piloting, and maritime professional development; marine pilots and dock- ing master associations; pilotage boards, commissions, and state government departments responsible for pilotage regulation; the shipping and towing indus- tries; port authorities; marine exchanges; and public interest organizations. The report provides an overview of the marine transportation system as an essential foundation for understanding the role of government, pilot associations and pi- lotage administrators, marine transportation companies, port authorities, and oth- er organizations concerned with vessel operations. As an aid for readability, a chapter summary is provided at the beginning of each chapter. Chapter 1 introduces issues in waterways management, marine pilotage, and navigation technology and describes the marine navigation and piloting system. It also describes changes affecting marine transportation, the controversy over pilotage and safety performance, and the need for assessing navigation and pilot- ing. Chapter 2 describes and analyzes marine pilotage practices and identifies the central features of an ideal pilotage system. Chapter 3 describes and analyzes pilotage administration and identifies op- tions for improving the state of practice. Chapter 4 describes risk, risk-assessment methodologies, and risk assess- ment in marine transportation. It also characterizes and discusses risk and safety
XIV PREFACE performance factors in piloting waters, the operating environment, and the com- plexity of vessel maneuvering behavior. The chapter provides a safety perfor- mance analysis and offers options for improving risk and safety assessment ire marine transportation. Chapter 5 compares traffic regulation in the aviation and maritime environ- ments and examines alternatives for improving waterways management in har- bors, waterways, and rivers supporting ship navigation. Chapter 6 examines traditional and emerging navigation technologies, their application, and their potential for improving safety performance. Chapter 7 examines human systems, such as organizational systems; hu- man-machine interface issues; and professional development, including the use of marine simulation. Chapter 8 identifies research needs and suggests a research program. Chapter 9 presents the committee's perspectives on the major changes that are in progress and that will drive the marine navigation arid piloting system over the next decade. Chapter 10 presents the committee's conclusions and recommendations. The appendices provide essential background and technical information ur~- derpinning the analysis in the main body of the report.
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 THE MARINE NAVIGATION AND PILOTING SYSTEM 25 Summary, 25 Introduction, 26 Pilotage, 30 Vessel and Waterway Systems, 32 Human Systems, 40 Technology, 49 Organizational Cultures and Structures for Decision Making, 52 Risk and Change in the Marine Navigation and Piloting System, 55 The Pilotage Controversy, 63 2 PILOTING PRACTICES Summary, 67 Introduction, 68 Pilotage Overview, 68 Pilotage Systems and Models, 96 PILOTAGE ADMINISTRATION Summary, 99 Introduction, 101 Regulating Professions and Professionals, 102 Federal Regulation of Pilotage, 104 xv 67 99
xvi State Regulation of Pilotage, 116 Other Forms of Pilotage, 122 Improving Pilotage Practices and Administration, 137 4 RISK, THE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT, AND SAFETY Summary, 159 Introduction, 160 Risk, 161 Risk in Marine Transportation, 165 The Operating Environment from a Risk Assessment Perspective, 170 Issues to be Addressed by Quantitative Risk Management, 178 Improving Risk Assessment, Management, and Communication, 182 CONTENTS MARINE TRAFFIC REGULATION Summary, 185 Regulation of Marine and Air Traffic, 186 Comparison of Air Traffic Control and Marine Traffic Regulation, 187 Marine Alternatives to the Aviation Model, 200 Improving Waterways Management, 207 Implementing More Rigorous Marine Traffic Regulation, 215 6 NAVIGATION AND PILOTING TECHNOLOGY Summary, 217 Introduction, 219 Summary of Improvement Options, 219 Improving Navigation Technologies, 223 Technological Change, 261 A HUMAN SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE ON MARINE NAVIGATION AND PILOTING Summary, 271 Introduction, 272 An Organizational View of Navigation and Piloting Systems, 274 Applying Organizational Safety Strategies to Marine Navigation and Piloting, 279 8 RESEARCH NEEDS Summary, 297 Introduction, 297 The Marine Transportation Research Environment, 298 Elements of an Holistic Research Program, 299 Establishing a Research Program, 303 185 217 271 297
CONTENTS 9 A VISION OF THE FUTURE Improving Safety Performance, 305 Specific Areas for Improvement, 306 Federal Agency Roles, 308 10 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Marine Navigation and Piloting: Integrating the System, 312 Human Systems, 314 Marine Pilotage, 317 Waterways Management, 330 Navigation and Piloting Technology, 334 Marine Navigation and Piloting Research Needs, 342 APPENDIXES A. Biographies B. Acknowledgements C. Papers Prepared for this Study D. A Review of Studies Covering U.S. Navigable Waters E. Central Features of a Complete Pilotage System F. Pilot Training Requirements G. A Primer on Navigation Technologies H. Summary Report of European Trip GLOSSARY REFERENCES INDEX . . XV11 305 311 347 354 358 360 397 416 434 449 459 463 487
. . . XVIII BOXES 2-10 2-11 2-12 3-1 3-3 3-4 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 4-1 4-2 4-4 CONTENTS LIST OF BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES Pilotage Terms Used in this Report, 28 Theoretical Knowledge, 46 General Assessment of Technology Usefulness and Availability, 50 Ship-Management Practices for U.S.-Flag Ships, 52 Risk Factors, 57 A Brief Legal History of Pilotage, 72 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Routes, Port of Baltimore and Upper Chesapeake Bay, 73 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Route, Port of Charleston, South Carolina, 74 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Responsibilities, 78 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Routes, Ports of Key West and Boca Grande, 82 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Routes, Hawaiian Ports, 86 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Route and Skill Requirements, Columbia River Bar and Lower Columbia River, 88 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Services and Routes, San Francisco Bay Area, 91 Solicited Expert Account: Docking Master Development, 92 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Route, Puget Sound, 93 Solicited Expert Account: Pilot Routes, Southeastern, Southcentral' and Western Alaska, 94 Central Features of Pilotage Models, 97 Professional Regulation and Certification Terms, 102 Coast Guard Role in Pilotage, 105 Gaps in Official Accountability for Foreign Trade Vessels, :107 Characteristics of a Federal Pilot as a Member of a Vessel's Crew, 108 Characteristics of a Federal Pilot Not a Member of a Vessel's Crew, 110 Characteristics of State Pilots, 117 Harbor Pilotage and Docking Services, Port of New York and New Jersey, 126 Requirements for License as Operator of Uninspected Towing Vessels, 131 Pilotage Accountability, Bay and River Delaware, 148 High Water on the Lower Mississippi, 171 Using Automatic Radar Plotting Aids in Narrow Channels, 172 Passing Evolution in a Narrow Channel, 175 Tradeoffs in Economic Efficiency and Safety in Port Operations, 176
CONTENTS 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 7-1 7-2 D-1 E-1 H-l FIGURES 1-1 1 -2 1 -3 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 3-1 4-1 4-2 5-1 TABLES 5-1 6-1 D-1 XIX Central Features of the Airspace System Supporting Effective Distributed Decision Making, 192 VTS-User Interactions, 207 Adequacy of Hydrographic Survey Data, 227 Evaluating Electronic Navigation Systems, 234 VTS Surveillance, 244 Turning a Ship, 248 Ship Controllability and Piloting Expert Systems, 251 Integrated Bridge Systems, 257 Marine Pilot Use of Integrated Bridge Systems, 258 Some Terms used in This Report, 272 Human Systems Literature, 273 Literature Reviewed, 361 Candidate Marine Pilot Simulator-Based Training Modules, 403 European Trip Itinerary, 452 Main Components of the Marine Navigation arid Piloting System, 27 Undergraduate Enrollment at the Federal and State Maritime Academies, 45 Employment Data for Class of 1991 Graduates of the Federal and State Maritime Academies, 46 Location of East Coast and Florida Pilot arid Docking Master Associations, 75 Location of Gulf Coast Pilot Associations and Mooring Masters, 76 Location of West Coast Pilot Associations and Mooring Masters, 77 Location of Pilot Associations and Mooring Masters in Alaska arid Hawaii, 77 Maritime Credentials for 23 of 36 Coastguardsmen and Civilian Employees in the Merchant Vessel Personnel Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, D.C., 114 Main Components of Quantitative Risk Analysis, 162 Historical Casualty Rates for VTS Addressable Casualties, 173 Vessel Traffic Services and Similar Operations Serving U.S. Waters, 188 National Airspace System Features Compared in the Aviation and Marine Sectors, 195 Summary of Technology Improvemerlt Options, 220 VTS Benefits, 374
MINDING THE HELM