National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

SAFE WORK in the 21ST CENTURY

Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel

Committee to Assess Training Needs for Occupational Safety and Health Personnel in the United States

Board on Health Sciences Policy

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, and the American Academy of Industrial Hygiene. This support does not constitute endorsement of the views expressed in the report.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Safe work in the 21st century : education and training needs for the next decade’s occupational safety and health personnel / Committee to Assess Training Needs for Occupational Safety and Health Personnel in the United States, Health Sciences Policy Division, Institute of Medicine.

p. cm

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-309-07026-0

1. Industrial hygiene. 2. Industrial safety. I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee to Access Training Needs for Occupational Safety and Health Personnel in the United States.

RC967.S215 2000

616.9′803—dc21 00-055005

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Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Cover photograph: Window Washer on the Empire State Building. Photographer: Earl Dotter.

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.

Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

Shaping the Future for Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

COMMITTEE TO ASSESS TRAINING NEEDS FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PERSONNEL IN THE UNITED STATES

JAMES A. MERCHANT (Chair), Dean,

College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City

LINDA HAWES CLEVER, Chairperson,

Department of Occupational Health, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco

RUTH HANFT,

Independent Health Policy Consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia

RONALD KUTSCHER, Retired Associate Commissioner,

Office of Economic Growth and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C.

JAMES A. OPPOLD,

Occupational Safety and Health Consultant, Raleigh, North Carolina

M.E. BONNIE ROGERS, Director,

Occupational Health Nursing Program, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

SCOTT SCHNEIDER, Director,

Occupational Health and Safety Program, Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund of North America, Washington, D.C.

MARTIN SEPULVEDA, Vice President,

Global Occupational Health Services, IBM Corporation, Somers, New York

ROBERT C. SPEAR, Professor of Environmental Health Sciences,

School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley

LOIS E. TETRICK, Professor of Psychology,

Department of Psychology, University of Houston

NEAL A. VANSELOW, Chancellor Emeritus, Professor of Medicine Emeritus,

School of Medicine, Tulane University

M. DONALD WHORTON, Occupational Medicine Practitioner, President,

M. Donald Whorton, Inc., Alameda, California

Board on Health Sciences Policy Liaison

MARK R. CULLEN, Professor of Medicine and Public Health,

Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Study Staff

FREDERICK J. MANNING, Project Director

ALDEN B. CHANG II, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

Institute of Medicine Staff

ANDREW POPE, Director,

Board on Health Sciences Policy

HALLIE WILFERT, Administrative Assistant

CARLOS GABRIEL, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

INDEPENDENT REPORT REVIEWERS

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

JOHN M. DEMENT, Associate Professor, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical School

BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Director, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

JOSEPH LADOU, Professor of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California at San Francisco

JANE A. LIPSCOMB, Associate Professor, School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore

EDWARD B. PERRIN, Professor Emeritus, Department of Health Services, Center for Cost and Outcomes Research, University of Washington

GORDON REEVE, Corporate Epidemiologist, Health Care Management, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan

JONATHAN D. ROSEN, Director, Health and Safety Department, New York Public Employees Federation, Albany

DAVID ROSNER, Professor of History and Public Health, and Codirector, Program in History of Public Health and Medicine, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

GAVRIEL SALVENDY, Professor of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University

DAVID TOLLERUD, Director, Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, C.P. Hahnemann University School of Public Health, Philadelphia

While the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of the report rests solely with the authoring committee and the Institute of Medicine.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


AAIHN

American Association of Industrial Nurses

AAOHN

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

AAOM

American Academy of Occupational Medicine

ABET

Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

ABOHN

Accreditation Board for Occupational Health Nurses

ABIH

American Board of Industrial Hygiene

ABPM

American Board of Preventive Medicine

ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

ACGME

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education

ACOEM

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act

AEP

Associate Ergonomics Professional

AHC

academic health center

AIHA

American Industrial Hygiene Association

AMT

advanced manufacturing techniques

AOMA

American Occupational Medicine Association

ASP

Associate Safety Professional

ASSE

American Society of Safety Engineers


BCPE

Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics

BCSP

Board of Certified Safety Professionals

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

CAE

Certified Associate Ergonomist

CE

continuing education

CEA

Certified Ergonomics Associate

CEAP

Certified Employee Assistance Professional

CEPH

Council on Education in Public Health

CEU

continuing education units

CHCM

Certified Hazard Control Manager

CHFEP

Certified Human Factors Engineering Professional

CHFP

Certified Human Factors Professional

CIE*

Certified Industrial Engineer

CIH

Certified Industrial Hygienist

CMI

computer-managed instruction

COHN

Certified Occupational Health Nurse

COHN-S

Certified Occupational Health Nurse-Specialist

CPE

Certified Professional Ergonomist

CSP

Certified Safety Professional


DOE

U.S. Department of Energy

DOJ

U.S. Department of Justice


EAP

employee assistance program

EAPA

Employee Assistance Professional Association

EFS

Educational Field Services program

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ERC

Education and Research Center (Educational Resource Center until 1999)


GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP

gross domestic product


HMO

health maintenance organization

HWWT

hazardous waste worker training


IHIT

Industrial Hygienist in Training

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IVD

interactive video disc


JIT

just-in-time inventory control


MAC

maximum allowable concentrations

MCW

Medical College of Wisconsin

MSHA

Mine Safety and Health Administration

MWT

Minority Worker Training program

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NIEHS

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NLN

National League for Nursing


OEM

occupational and environmental medicine

OM

occupational medicine

OSH

occupational safety and health

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHAct

Occupational Safety and Health Act


RPE

Registered Professional Engineer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
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×

Acknowledgments

George W. Anstadt

Eastman Kodak Co.

Roger L. Brauer

Board of Certified Safety Professionals

Thomas Bresnahan

American Society of Safety Engineers

Ann Brockhaus

Organization Resources Counselors, Inc.

Leo Carey

National Safety Council

Scott Clark

University of Cincinnati

Jerome Congleton

Texas A&M University

Ann Cox

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

Ann Cronin

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Cathy Cronin

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Training Institute

Gregory DeLapp

Employee Assistance Professional Association

Don Ethier

American Industrial Hygiene Association

Julia Faucett

University of California at San Francisco

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

Adam Finkel

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Bruce G. Flynn

Washington Business Group on Health

Roy Gibbs

United States Department of Energy

Manuel Gomez

American Industrial Hygiene Association

Larry Grayson

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

William Greaves

Medical College of Wisconsin

Colonel Mark Hamilton

Office of the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense

Eugene Handley

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Larry Hardy

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Joseph Hughes, Jr.

National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences

Sharon Kemerer

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses

W. Monroe Keyserling

University of Michigan

Bernadine B. Kuchinski

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Tom Leamon

Liberty Mutual Insurance Co.

Tom MacLeod

Mine Safety and Health Administration

Michael S. Morgan

University of Washington

Royce Moser, Jr.

University of Utah

Frances M. Murphy

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

Julie B. Norman

University of Montana

John Olson

University of Wisconsin-Stout

Nico Pronk

Health Partners

Jonathan Rosen

New York State Public Employees Federation

Linda Rosenstock

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

Karl Sieber

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Rosemary Sokas

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Tim Stephens

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

John T. Talty

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Victor Toy

American Association of Industrial Hygienists

Lawrence W. Whitehead

University of Texas-Houston

Jerry Williams

American Society of Safety Engineers

Samuel Wilson

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

4

 

THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

 

105

   

 Review of Past Workplace Changes,

 

106

   

 A Look to the Future,

 

110

   

 Implications for Occupational Fatalities, Injuries, and Illnesses,

 

120

   

 Implications for Training Needs of Occupational Safety and Health Personnel,

 

121

5

 

THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION OF WORK

 

125

   

 Globalization of Trade,

 

126

   

 Work Design,

 

128

   

 Organizational Design,

 

135

   

 Work-Life Balance,

 

139

   

 Implications for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Training,

 

140

6

 

THE CHANGING DELIVERY OF HEALTH CARE

 

141

   

 Elements of Health Care Reform,

 

144

   

 Implications for Education and Training of Occupational Safety and Health Professionals,

 

150

7

 

EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS

 

152

   

 Research Training,

 

154

   

 Occupational Safety Programs,

 

155

   

 Industrial Hygiene Programs,

 

161

   

 Occupational Medicine Residencies,

 

164

   

 Occupational Health Nursing Programs,

 

170

   

 21st Century Knowledge and Expertise,

 

173

   

 Funding Sources for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Training,

 

174

   

 Future Needs in Worker and Employer Safety and Health Training,

 

193

8

 

ALTERNATIVES TO TRADITIONAL CLASSROOMS

 

196

   

 Distance Education Modalities,

 

199

   

 Distance Education and Workforce Relationships: Potential Benefits and Costs,

 

200

   

 Current Examples,

 

202

   

 Education Outlook for Occupational Safety and Health,

 

206

   

 Conclusion,

 

206

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND BOXES

Tables

2-1

 

Percentage of Respondents Reporting the Indicated Activities as Among the Three Most Important Worked on During the Preceding Year,

 

55

2-2

 

Percentage of Respondents Reporting Hands-on Involvement in the Indicated Activities,

 

56

2-3

 

Percentage of Respondents Reporting That They Manage the Indicated Activities,

 

56

2-4

 

Primary Board Certifications of ACOEM Members, April 1999,

 

64

2-5

 

Percentage of ACOEM Members Providing the Listed OM Service,

 

66

2-6

 

Most Important Work Activities Reported by Occupational Health Nurses,

 

76

2-7

 

Job Titles Reported by Two Samples of Occupational Health Nurses,

 

77

2-8

 

Estimated Number of Active OSH Professionals in the United States, 1999,

 

85

3-1

 

Percentage of Mothers in Labor Force, 1975–1998 by Age of Youngest Child in March 1973,

 

93

3-2

 

Employment of Persons Ages 21–64 Years, 1991–1992 and 1994–1995,

 

95

3-3

 

Real Disposable Per Capita Income, Selected Years, 1986–1998, and Projected to 2010,

 

97

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

3-4

 

Civilian Labor Force, 1988, 1998, and Projected to 2010,

 

99

3-5

 

Total Civilian Labor Force, Entrants, Leavers, and Stayers, 1988, 1998, and Projected to 2010,

 

101

4-1

 

Employment by Major Industry Division in 1988 and 1998 and Projected Employment for 2010,

 

107

4-2

 

Employment by Major Occupational Group for 1988 and 1998 and Projected Employment for 2010,

 

108

4-3

 

Incidence of Nonfatal Occupational Injures and Illnesses by Private Industry Division, Selected Years,

 

112

4-4

 

Fatal Occupational Injuries, 1992 to 1998 in Private Industry and Government,

 

113

4-5

 

Percentage of Workforce That Is Unionized by Major Sector, Selected Years, 1983 to 1998,

 

114

4-6

 

Employed Persons by Full- or Part-Time Status, 1970 to 1998,

 

118

4-7

 

Employment by Size of Establishment in Selected Years, 1980 to 1997,

 

120

7-1

 

Subject Area and Number of Susan Harwood Training Grants Program Grants Awarded in Fiscal Year 1999,

 

183

Figures

1-1

 

Deaths per 100,000 workers due to injury, 1913 to 1998,

 

18

2-1

 

Percentage of professional members reporting safety-related certifications in three surveys,

 

45

2-2

 

Primary job focus of ASSE members,

 

46

2-3

 

Employers reported by certified safety professionals in a 1997 survey,

 

48

2-4

 

Percentage of respondents reporting daily direct interaction with the indicated groups,

 

57

2-5

 

Primary practice setting of ACOEM members,

 

65

2-6

 

Practice settings for ACOEM survey respondents,

 

65

2-7

 

Highest level of formal education reported by occupational health nurses in 1999 compensation and benefits survey,

 

73

3-1

 

Age of civilian labor force, 1988 and 1999,

 

92

3-2

 

Minorities in the civilian labor force, 1988 and 1998,

 

94

3-3

 

New entrants to the labor force projected from 1998 to 2010, by race and ethnicity, as a percentage of total new entrants,

 

102

4-1

 

Occupations with the highest number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses, 1997,

 

112

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
×

4-2

 

Employment in personnel supply services, 1986 to 1998,

 

114

4-3

 

Mean number of jobs held between the ages of 18 and 32 (1978 to 1995) reported in 1995 by individuals ages 31 to 38 in 1995, by level of education,

 

117

4-4

 

Aggregate employment increase between 1990 and 1995 for firms of various sizes,

 

119

5-1

 

U.S. investment in computer equipment and software, 1990 to 1998,

 

129

5-2

 

Information technology as a means of integrating various basic manufacturing activities,

 

130

6-1

 

National expenditures for health services and supplies, 1970 to 1997 and projections for 2002,

 

143

7-1

 

Number of degrees awarded from 1990 to 1999 by schools responding to ASSE survey on graduates,

 

156

7-2

 

Funding, by discipline, by NIOSH of ERCs and TPG, 1995 to 1999,

 

175

7-3

 

Master’s degrees awarded with support of NIOSH training programs, 1987 to 1997,

 

176

7-4

 

Graduates of “other” NIOSH-supported educational programs, 1987 to 1997,

 

177

7-5

 

Student-days of continuing education and number of courses supported by NIOSH, 1991 to 1997,

 

178

7-6

 

Employers of students attending NIOSH-supported continuing education courses in 1996–1997,

 

179

7-7

 

Backgrounds of students attending NIOSH-supported continuing education in 1996–1997,

 

179

7-8

 

Student-days of instruction by OSHA Training Institute, all sites, in fiscal years 1995 to 1998,

 

181

7-9

 

Source of fiscal year 1998 students for OSHA Training Institute and OSHA Training Institute Education Centers,

 

182

Boxes

1

 

Summary of Recommendations,

 

15

2-1

 

Occupational Health and Safety Pyramid,

 

34

2-2

 

Competencies in Occupational and Environmental Nursing,

 

72

9-1

 

Summary of Recommendations,

 

212

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9835.
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Despite many advances, 20 American workers die each day as a result of occupational injuries. And occupational safety and health (OSH) is becoming even more complex as workers move away from the long-term, fixed-site, employer relationship.

This book looks at worker safety in the changing workplace and the challenge of ensuring a supply of top-notch OSH professionals. Recommendations are addressed to federal and state agencies, OSH organizations, educational institutions, employers, unions, and other stakeholders.

The committee reviews trends in workforce demographics, the nature of work in the information age, globalization of work, and the revolution in health care delivery-exploring the implications for OSH education and training in the decade ahead.

The core professions of OSH (occupational safety, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine and nursing) and key related roles (employee assistance professional, ergonomist, and occupational health psychologist) are profiled-how many people are in the field, where they work, and what they do. The book reviews in detail the education, training, and education grants available to OSH professionals from public and private sources.

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