The National Academies: Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

References and Credits

The information in this booklet was derived from data provided by the Energy Information Administration and from the following National Research Council reports.

Reports from the National Academies are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; 800-624-6242; www.nap.edu. Reports are available online in a fully searchable format.


Notes

  1. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2006. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.278. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  2. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.12. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  3. EIA. 2006. Electric Power Annual 2006. Online, p.2. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  4. National Research Council (NRC). 2005. Prospective Evaluation of Applied Energy Research and Development at DOE (Phase One): A First Look Forward. Online, pp. 75-86. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11277. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  5. General Electric Company. No date. H System™ Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. Online. GE. Available at www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/gas_turbines_cc/en/h_system/index.htm. Accessed April 23, 2008.
  6. EIA. 2001. End-Use Consumption of Electricity 2001. Online. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/enduse2001/enduse2001.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  7. EIA. 2006. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.36. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2007 Buildings Energy Data Book. Online. DOE. Available at http://buildingsdatabook.eere.energy.gov/images/charts/2007/2005_ResidentialBuildingsEnd-Use.pdf. Accessed April 4, 2008.
  9. NOAA. 2005. “After Two Large Annual Gains, Rate of Atmospheric CO2 Increase Returns to Average, NOAA Reports.” Online. NOAA. Available at www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2412.htm. Accessed April 9, 2008.
  10. National Research Council (NRC). 2008. Understanding and Responding to Climate Change. Online, p.23. National Academies Press. Available at http://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/climate_change_2008_final.pdf. Accessed April 8, 2008.
  11. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.11. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  12. EIA. 2006. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p. 344. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  13. EIA. 2006. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.278. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  14. EIA. No date. Energy Kids Page. Online. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/saving/efficiency/savingenergy_secondary.html. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  15. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.125. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  16. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.12. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  17. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.8. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  18. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.5. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s energy flow chart. (See “The Flow of Energy” in the Supply and Demand section of this site.)
  20. EIA. 2006. Electric Power Annual 2006. Online, p.2. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  21. EIA. 2007. International Energy Outlook 2007. Online, Chapter 3, Petroleum and Other Liquids Fuels. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/oil.html. Accessed April 8, 2008.
  22. EIA. February 2008. International Petroleum Monthly. Online. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/t21.xls. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  23. EIA. 2007. Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector. Online. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass.html. Accessed April 18, 2008.
  24. Davis, S. C. and S. W. Diegel. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26. Online, p.2-13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available at http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=7768. Accessed April 18, 2008.
  25. Farrell, A. E., R. J. Plevin, B. T. Turner, A. D. Jones, M. O'Hare, and D. M. Kammen. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311 (5760):506-508.
  26. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.6. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  27. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.187. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  28. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.9. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  29. EIA. December 21, 2007. World Dry Natural Gas Consumption, Most Recent Annual Estimates, 1980-2006. Online. EIA. Available at http://eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/RecentNaturalGasConsumptionBCF.xls. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  30. EIA. January 9, 2007. World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates. Online. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  31. EIA. 2006. Annual Coal Report 2006. Online, p.1. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/acr.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  32. EIA. 2007. Coal Reserves Current and Back Issues. Online. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/reserves/reserves.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  33. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.6. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  34. EIA. 2006. Annual Coal Report 2006. Online, p.11. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/acr.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  35. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Online, p.4. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/aeo07/pdf/overview.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  36. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Online, p. 14. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/forecasting/aeo2007earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed April 22, 2008.
  37. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p. 12. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  38. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s energy flow chart. (See “The Flow of Energy” in the Supply and Demand section of this site.)
  39. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.7. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  40. Johnson, Toni. November 2, 2007. Global Uranium Supply and Demand. Online. Council on Foreign Relations. Available at www.cfr.org/publication/14705/global_uranium_supply_and_demand.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  41. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.10. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  42. EIA. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (Early Release).* Online, p.7. EIA. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/pdf/earlyrelease.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  43. Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, Public Law 94-163.
  44. National Research Council. 2002. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards. Online, p. 3. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10172. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  45. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Public Law 110-140, 100th Cong., 1st sess. Online. Available at http://energy.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=IssueItems.Detail&IssueItem_ID=f10ca3dd-fabd-4900-aa9d-c19de47df2da&Month=12&Year=2007. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  46. National Research Council. 2001. Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000. Online, pp. 28-30. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10165. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  47. National Research Council. 2002. Partnerships for Solid State Lighting: Report of a Workshop. Online, p.8. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10473. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  48. Department of Energy. 2007. 2007 Buildings Energy Data Book. Online. DOE. Available at http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/2007-bedb-0921.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  49. National Research Council. 2002. Partnerships for Solid State Lighting: Report of a Workshop. Online, p.8. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10473. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  50. National Research Council. 2002. Partnerships for Solid State Lighting: Report of a Workshop. Online, p.9. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10473. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  51. EIA. 2006. Annual Energy Review 2006. Online, p.36. EIA. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/multifuel/038406.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2008.
  52. National Research Council. 2001. Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000. Online, p. 26. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10165. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  53. National Research Council. 2008. Review of DOE’s Nuclear Energy Research and Development Program. Online, pp.31ff. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11998. Accessed April 11, 2008.
  54. National Research Council. 2006. Alternatives to the Indian Point Energy Center for Meeting New York Electric Power Needs. Online, p.87. National Academies Press. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11666. Accessed on April 11, 2008.
  55. National Research Council. 2007. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. Online, p.15. National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  56. Fuel Cells 2000. 2008. Worldwide Hydrogen Fueling Stations. Online. Breakthrough Technologies Institute. Available at www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/h2fuelingstations.pdf. Accessed on March 21, 2008.
  57. Bureau of Land Management. No date. Oil Shale and Tar Sands Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Online. Bureau of Land Management. Available at http://ostseis.anl.gov/guide/tarsands/index.cfm. Accessed April 8, 2008.
  58. Alvarez, Cesar J. November 27, 2006. Venezuela’s Oil-Based Economy. Online. Council on Foreign Relations. Available at www.cfr.org/publication/12089/venezuelas_oilbased_economy.html. Accessed March 21, 2008.
  59. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Public Law 110-140, 100th Cong., 1st sess. Online. Available at http://energy.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=IssueItems.Detail&IssueItem_ID=f10ca3dd-fabd-4900-aa9d-c19de47df2da&Month=12&Year=2007. Accessed September 15, 2008.

* After the publication of this booklet, the EIA replaced the early release Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with a revised version. Therefore numbers included in the booklet that are referenced to this source may no longer be current.


This publication was written by Curt Suplee, based on an original draft by Allen Bard, Marilyn Brown, Mike Corradini, and Jeremy Mark. It was edited by Stephen Mautner and Terrell Smith in collaboration with Jim Zucchetto, Alan Crane, and the National Research Council's Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. The interior of the print version was designed by Francesca Moghari and the cover was designed by Michele de la Menardiere. Production was managed by Dorothy Lewis.

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
National Research Council

 Douglas M. Chapin,* Chair, MPR Associates, Inc.
Robert W. Fri, Vice Chair, Resources for the Future
Rakesh Agrawal,* Purdue University
Allen J. Bard,† University of Texas
Andrew Brown, Jr.,* Delphi Corporation
Marilyn Brown, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Georgia Institute of Technology
Michael L. Corradini,* University of Wisconsin, Madison
Paul A. DeCotis, State of New York, Office of the Governor
E. Linn Draper, Jr.,* American Electric Power, Inc.
Charles H. Goodman, Southern Company Services, Inc. (retired)
David G. Hawkins, Natural Resources Defense Council
James J. Markowsky,* American Electric Power Service Corporation (retired)
David K. Owens, Edison Electric Institute
William F. Powers,* Ford Motor Company (retired)
Michael P. Ramage,* ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired)
Maxine L. Savitz,* Honeywell, Inc. (retired)
Scott W. Tinker, University of Texas, Austin

* Member, National Academy of Engineering.
† Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Illustration Credits: Cover: © Peter Dazeley/Photographer’s Choice. With the exception of the Flow of Energy illustration, all artwork by Danial James Studios and copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Pie charts, bar graphs, and line graphs based on information from the Energy Information Administration.

This HTML version was designed and produced by Useful Studios.

We would like to thank Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Communications Institute for their contributions to this booklet.

© 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

 

Introduction | Sources and Uses | Supply and Demand | Improving Efficiency | Emerging Technologies | Looking Ahead | References and Credits

© 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.