The report identified various factors which contributed to creating an unfulfilled need for veterinarians in the biomedical research workforce, including an increase in the number of NIH grants utilizing animals and the burgeoning use of transgenic rodents, without a comparable change in the supply of appropriately-trained veterinarians. The committee developed strategies for recruiting more veterinarians into careers in biomedical research.
Johne's Disease is a chronic, progressive intestinal disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) that affects primarily ruminant animals. In recent decades there has been growing concern over the lack of effective control of this disease and questions have arisen regarding the possibility that Map infection could be a cause of some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. This report presents a broad outline of the steps that should be taken to control Johne's disease, reduce the spread of Map, and minimize effects of the disease in animals. The report
For the 119 species of marine mammals, as well as for some other aquatic animals, sound is the primary means of learning about the environment and of communicating, navigating, and foraging. The possibility that human-generated noise could harm marine mammals or significantly interfere with their normal activities is an issue of increasing concern. Noise and its potential impacts have been regulated since the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. Public awareness of the issue escalated in 1990s when researchers began using high-intensity sound to measure ocean climate changes.
The National Plant Genome Initiative was launched in 1998 as a long-term project to explore DNA structure and function in plants so that useful properties of plants can be understood, improved, and ultimately harnessed to address national needs, including agriculture, nutrition, energy and waste reduction. Experts in the community were asked to consider how to build on current accomplishments in order to address major questions in plant biology and to make recommendations for objectives for the next five-year phase of the Initiative.
Recognizing the important contributions that genomic analysis can make to agriculture, production and companion animal science, evolutionary biology, and human health with respect to the creation of models for genetic disorders, the National Academies convened a group of individuals to plan a public workshop that would: (1) assess these contributions; (2) identify potential research directions for existing genomics programs; and (3) highlight the opportunities of a coordinated, multi-species genomics effort for the science and policymaking communities. Their efforts culminated in a workshop sp
Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Europe and Japan set off alarm bells in the United States and other nations, prompting a flurry of new regulations, border controls, inspections, and other activities to prevent incursions of the diseases. The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, added a new note of urgency to the alarm. Concerned about additional acts of terror or sabotage in various sectors of the economy, including agriculture, U.S. government and industry officials have begun to reevaluate emergency management p
Nonindigenous plants and plant pests that find their way to the United States and become invasive can often cause problems. They cost more than $100 billion per year in crop and timber losses plus the expense of herbicides and pesticides. And this figure does not include the costs of invasions in less intensively managed ecosystems such as wetlands. Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests examines this growing problem and offers recommendations for enhancing the science base in this field, improving our detection of potential invaders, and refining our ability to predict their impact. Th
Atlantic salmon in Maine, once abundant but now seriously depleted, were listed as endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) in November 2000. The listing covers the wild fish in eight Maine rivers as a single "distinct population segment." The controversy in Maine that accompanied the listing led Congress to request the National Research Council's (NRC's) advice on the science relevant to understanding and reversing the declines in Maine's salmon populations. The charge to the NRC's Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine included an interim report focusing on the genetic makeup
Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone s Northern Range discusses the complex management challenges in Yellowstone National Park. Controversy over the National Park Service s approach of "natural regulation" has heightened in recent years because of changes in vegetation and other ecosystem components in Yellowstone's northern range. Natural regulation minimizes human impacts, including management intervention by the National Park Service, on the park ecosystem. Many have attributed these changes to increased size of elk and other ungulate herds.